includes those functions that are in the process of developing but not yet fully developed. In practice, the zone of proximal development represents the gap between what children can do on their own and what they can do with the assistance of others.
process by which adults provide support to a child who is learning to master a task or problem. When adults scaffold a task or problem, they perform or direct those elements of the task that are beyond the child's ability.
Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighborhood, and childcare environments)
A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (a child's home and school)
External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace)
The larger cultural context (Eastern vs. Western culture, national economy, political culture, subculture)
The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the course of life.