You respond to a 48-year-old female with syncope. She is found sitting on the commode vomiting into the trashcan. The vomitus looks like coffee grounds. The patient is pale and complains of weakness for one week. Which of the following abdominal conditions is she likely suffering from?
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Which of the following are NOT general principles that apply to the use of an AED?
Answer Pulse checks should not occur during rhythm analysis
Airway comes first, establish an advanced airway prior to defibrillation
CPR must include high-quality compressions
State Clear and make sure all are clear before delivering a shock
Your patient is a 44-year-old female who collapsed while jogging. Her husband appears to be performing high-quality CPR. You have the husband stop compressions and you check for a pulse while your partner applies the AED pads and gets in place for CPR. There is no pulse and your partner begins compressions while you turn on the AED. What is the NEXT step?
Answer Insert an oropharyngeal airway and begin ventilations
Administer first shock if AED indicates shock is advised
Clear patient and push analyze button
Stop CPR and check for a pulse
Which of the following is the correct pediatric dosage of epinephrine?
Answer 1.5 mg
Name the MOST critical piece of equipment to have immediately available for the seizure patient who has just stopped convulsing?
Your patient is a 25-year-old female with a history of diabetes. She presents with confusion, tachycardia and pale, sweaty skin. Which of the following is the MOST LIKELY cause of her symptoms?
Answer Failure to take her insulin
A non-diabetic related problem, such as a head injury or mental illness
Reduced sugar intake from not eating
Excessive intake of foods high in sugar, such as soda or candy
You respond to a 59-year-old female complaining of tightness in her chest and feels short-of-breath. You place her on high-concentration oxygen and prepare for transport. Your partner tells you to give aspirin per protocol. Why is Aspirin used in this scenario?
Answer To reduce myocardial inflammation and dilate the bronchioles
To reduce the blood s ability to clot and works to prevent the clot formation that causes damage to the heart
To reduce the tightness in her chest by dilating the blood vessels
Aspirin helps the high-concentration oxygen reach the damaged tissue in the heart
Which of the following is FALSE when assessing the patient with difficulty breathing?
Answer Vital signs may indicate hypotension or hypertension
The amount of distress the patient feels may or may not reflect the actual severity
The adequacy of breathing is determined during the physical exam
Pedal edema may be a sign associated with difficulty breathing
You are transporting a 41-year-old female suffering from severe anaphylaxis. Her respiratory rate is 42 per minute, she is cyanotic, and she has a decreased level of responsiveness. What is the HIGHEST priority of care for this patient?
Answer Apply nonrebreather mask with high-concentration oxygen
Stop transport and stabilize patient
Search for an epinephrine auto-injector
Assist ventilations with a bag-valve mask and supplemental oxygen
Which of the following is TRUE about Nitroglycerin?
Answer It commonly has a potential side effect of hypertension
There are no contraindications with this drug
It helps to constrict coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood
It helps to dilate coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood
Your patient is a 15-year-old male with a history of multiple prior hospitalizations for asthma. Upon your arrival, the patient presents with weak respiratory effort and responds only to painful stimuli. What is your FIRST response?
Answer Contact medical control
Check the patient's oxygen saturation level
Assist the patient with his inhaler
Assist the patient's ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen
What medication is given when a patient suffers from a medical or traumatic condition which causes hypoxia?
Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding inadequate breathing?
Answer The trachea is small and less flexible in infants and children which may lead to obstruction
Cardiac conditions are a leading cause of inadequate breathing in infants and children
Retractions, nasal flaring, seesaw breathing and grunting are unique signs of inadequate breathing for infants and children
The tongue of infants and small children is proportionately larger than an adult and the diaphragm is not fully developed in infants and small children
Your 32-year old patient jerks about violently for about two minutes. What is this phase of a seizure known as?
Answer Aura phase
Which of the following patients is at the greatest risk for suicide based on national statistics?
Answer 22-year-old man who is getting divorced
35-year-old female who has a child with a serious illness
30-year-old married man who has just lost his job
44-year-old woman who has just lost her spouse
Which of the following statements regarding angina pectoris is TRUE?
Answer It can be brought on by exertion or stress
It is generally relieved by over-the-counter medications
The pain is caused by death to the heart muscle
It generally lasts 20 to 30 minutes
Contraindications for the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) include which of the following?
Answer Pulmonary edema
Inability to sit up
History of obstructive sleep apnea
A 52-year old male patient presents with poorly localized pain of the abdomen which is characterized as dull and achy and difficult to pinpoint. What classic pattern or type of pain is described above?
Which of the following options displays proper use of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
Answer Ask the patient to smile, hold his arms out straight in front of him with his eyes closed, and ask him to say the alphabet backward
Ask the patient to look up, hold his arms straight out by his side with his eyes closed, and ask him to repeat a sentence to see if he can remember it
Have the patient to say a sentence such as, " The sky is blue in Cincinnati." to see if he can say Cincinnati
Ask the patient to smile, hold his arms straight out in front of him with his eyes closed, and ask him to say a sentence to see if it is clear
Assuming your protocol allows the administration of nitroglycerin when certain conditions exist, what is the maximum number of tablets to be administered in the pre-hospital setting?
You have arrived on the scene of a call for a possible stroke. On your arrival, the patient denies signs and symptoms, is alert and oriented, and moves all extremities well. Her husband states that before you arrived the patient was confused, weak on one side and had difficulty speaking. Which of the following has MOST LIKELY occurred?
Answer Patient suffered a cerebral vascular accident
Patient is suffering from aphasia
Patient has had a subarachnoid hemorrhage
Patient suffered a transient ischemic attack
Your patient is a 16-year-old female with trouble breathing from a possible allergic reaction and she has her own epinephrine auto-injector. She presents with wheezing and cool clammy skin. After you assess the patient and contact medical control, you are advised to give the medication. When you give the medication she develops the following symptoms: dizziness, headache, nausea, nervousness, pallor and excitability. What are these symptoms considered?
How long does a typical hemodialysis treatment last?
Answer 15 to 30 minutes
1 to 2 hours
30 minutes to 1 hour
You have just arrived at an airport terminal where an airport employee has applied an AED to a patient who collapsed. The AED delivers the third shock as you place your equipment on the floor next to the patient. Which of the following is your BEST response to this scenario?
Answer Resume CPR and follow prompts of AED while waiting for ALS
Resume CPR if no pulse and prepare the patient for transport
If no pulse, continue CPR for five cycles before transporting
If no pulse, stop treatment and notify medical control for guidance
Which of the following is FALSE regarding Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)?
Answer ACS is a blanket term used when the heart does not get enough oxygen
ACS is a specific term used when the heart requires defibrillation
Chest pain, dyspnea, nausea and anxiety are common symptoms of ACS
Apply high-concentration oxygen via nonrebreather mask
Where is the hormone insulin secreted?
Answer Islets of Langerhans within the liver
Islets of Langerhans within the pancreas
How does the EMT determine how much medication to give when assisting with a prescribed inhaler?
Answer Administer until respiratory status improves
Follow prescription label
As directed by medical control
Ask patient how much he normally takes to get relief
Which of the following explains why a patient may experience difficulty breathing during anaphylaxis?
Answer Allergens and antibodies join together and release histamines causing bronchodilation
Swelling of the airway tissues cause difficulty breathing
Allergens clump together and block blood flow through the lungs
Allergens bind to hemoglobin, preventing it from carrying oxygen
Which of the following is acceptable when managing the patient with a behavioral or psychiatric emergency?
Answer Make supportive statements such as, "That must have been very hard for you."
Sit as close to the patient as you can to reassure him that you will not abandon him
Involve family members if care if patient is agitated
Play along with hallucinations or false beliefs
Your patient is a 34-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain. He is pale and diaphoretic with a heart rate of 102 beats per minute, a shallow respiratory rate of 28 breaths per minute, and a blood pressure of 132/80 mmHg. The patient is very agitated, anxious and appears to be in distress. Which of the following approaches is MOST appropriate to perform FIRST?
Answer Assess vital signs and reassess the patient every 15 minutes
Position the patient on his left side due to symptoms of shock
Try to calm and reassure the patient and apply oxygen
Perform history and physical to determine cause of pain
What is one of the most common causes of syncope?
Answer Cardiovascular causes like vasovagal syncope
Hypovolemic causes like dehydration
Metabolic and structural causes like middle or inner ear inflammation
When ventilating a child with inadequate respirations, what is the adequate rate at which artificial respirations should be delivered?
Answer 15 per minute
12 per minute
24 per minute
20 per minute
Hemodialysis is used for End-Stage Renal Disease to filter ________ and remove excess ________.
Answer electrolytes; fluids
Your patient is a 21-year-old female with a history of epilepsy. She is having a convulsion upon your arrival. Which of the following should you do?
Answer Insert a bite block, cloth, wallet, or similar item between the patient's teeth to prevent her from biting her tongue
Move furniture and other objects away from the patient to prevent injury
Hold the patient down to prevent injury to extremities
Turn the patient on their side and hold them there to prevent aspiration
When the lung collapses without injury or any other cause, it is called which of the following?
Your patient is a 3-year-old female who has taken an unknown quantity of aspirin. She is conscious and alert. What orders are likely to be given by medical control?
Answer Administer one to two glasses of milk
Administer activated charcoal
Induce vomiting by placing your finger in the child's throat
Administer syrup of ipecac
You are managing a patient who has been stung by a bee with a history of allergic reactions to bee stings in the past. The patient has some localized redness and swelling in the area of the bee sting but is not having difficulty breathing. He does have his epinephrine auto-injector available. Of the following, which would be performed FIRST for this patient?
Answer Continue the focused assessment
Transport immediately before anaphylaxis ensues
Advise him to take an oral antihistamine, such as Benadryl
Assist him with his epinephrine auto-injector
Which of the following is FALSE about Sickle Cell Anemia?
Answer Some patients carry the disease but do not have the disease
A genetic defect in the hemoglobin results in the abnormal structure of white blood cells
It may destroy the spleen resulting in a higher risk of infection
The disease may overwhelm the liver causing jaundice
How do you know when artificial ventilations are adequate in the adult patient with a pulse?
Answer Pulse remains the same or increases
Patient s pulse returns to normal
Carotid pulse is palpable
Patients skin color remains the same
What is the most frequently transplanted organ?
Which of the following is one of the most common causes of seizures in children 6 months to 3 years of age?
Your patient is exhibiting bizarre and aggressive behavior; he starts shouting and becomes violent. He has extra strength, appears insensitive to pain and drug paraphernalia is visible on-scene. What is crucial to know about this situation?
Answer The patient is suffering from Schizophrenia
The patient should be monitored closely throughout the call for sudden changes in respiratory status
That drugs have nothing to do with the behavior
The patient is about to commit suicide
You have just arrived on the scene of an agricultural business and see three men coming out of a building, choking and holding their heads. One of the men tells you there are two workers still inside. What should you do next?
Answer Call for properly trained assistance and stay a safe distance away from the scene
Cover your nose and mouth with a wet towel and check on the status of the two workers inside the building
Get the assistance of the men who made it out of the building to prevent delay in finding the workers inside
Evaluate the three men and administer high-concentration oxygen, then help them get a safe distance away from the scene
Your patient is a 66-year-old female who has regained a pulse after a shock with an AED; however, she remains unresponsive and is not breathing adequately. Which of the following should be the NEXT course of action?
Answer Deliver a fourth shock to improve the patient's respiratory status
Assist ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen and anticipate that the patient may go back into cardiac arrest
Remove the AED and assist the patient's ventilations with a bag-valve-mask and supplemental oxygen, and keep re-assessing the pulse
Apply a nonrebreather mask with high-concentration oxygen and keep reassessing the pulse
You are treating a 61-year-old who is a chronic abuser of alcohol. He is complaining of "snakes slithering around his ankles," and he tells you that he had only two drinks tonight. You notice that he is sweating, trembling, and anxious. Before you can complete your assessment, he begins to have a seizure. What is the MOST likely cause of this situation?
Answer Patient could not find an alcoholic beverage and drank antifreeze instead
Patient is suffering from alcohol withdrawal
Patient drank mouthwash instead of alcohol
Patient is suffering from acute alcohol poisoning
It is vital for the EMT to differentiate between adequate and inadequate breathing. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Answer Treatment of inadequate breathing is not always the priority
Rhythm is an absolute indicator of adequate or inadequate breathing
If you are uncertain whether the patient is breathing adequately or inadequately, provide artificial ventilation
Do not provide artificial ventilation without supplemental oxygen
You are transporting a 50-year-old male patient whom you successfully defibrillated at the scene. While en route to the hospital, the patient goes back into cardiac arrest. Which of the following is the BEST course of action?
Answer Analyze the cardiac rhythm and deliver shocks as necessary
Tell the driver to stop, analyze the cardiac rhythm, and deliver a shock as necessary
Tell the driver to stop and assist you with CPR, and request another unit for assistance
Initiate CPR and continue transporting
Why is epinephrine used for severe allergic reactions?
Answer It helps fight against histamines which are the source of the reaction
It helps dilate blood vessels and relaxes the airway
It helps constrict blood vessels and relax the airway passages
It reverses the allergic reaction by destroying the allergen
Which of the following allergic reaction scenarios indicates a generalized anaphylactic reaction and should be given epinephrine?
Answer Severe difficulty breathing with no hives or changes in blood pressure
Tachycardia with hypotension without difficulty breathing
Respiratory distress with signs and symptoms of hypoperfusion
All of the above