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Chapter 8 Intelligence
Terms in this set (50)
The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from experiences.
Mental age (MA)
An individual's level of mental development relative to that of others.
Chronological age (CA)
Age from birth.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
An individual's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100; devised in 1912 by William Stern
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve with a majority of the cases falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.
The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively, to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, to use feelings to facilitate thought, and to manage emotions in oneself and others.
The portion of the variance in a population that is attributed to genes.
Intelligence tests that are designed to avoid cultural bias.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Widely used scales, developed by Nancy Bayley, for assessing infant development. The current version, the Bayley-III, has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, and adaptive; the first three are administered to the infant, the latter two to the caregiver.
An individual's accumulated information and verbal skills, which continues to increase with age.
The ability to reason abstractly, which begins to decline in middle adulthood.
The "hardware" of the mind, reflecting the neurophysiological architecture of the brain as developed through evolution. ______ ________ involves the speed and accuracy of the processes involving sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization.
The culture-based "software" of the mind. _____ ______ include reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and also the type of self-knowledge and life skills that helps us to master or cope with life.
Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters.
A condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional test of intelligence, and has difficulty adapting to the demands of everyday life. First exhibits these characteristics by age 18.
Having above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.
The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
Thinking that produces many answers to the same questions; characteristic of creativity.
Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests.
Technique in which individuals are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group, play off each other's ideas, and say practically whatever come to mind relevant to a particular issue.
Robert J. Sternberg
Proposes that practical know-how should be considered part of intelligence. In his view, intelligence involves weighing options carefully and acting judiciously, as well as developing strategies to improve short-comings.
Constructed the first intelligence test.
Worked with Binet.
Created Wechsler scales. Includes: WAIS-III (for adults), WISC-IV (children and adolescents), and WPPSI-III (Preschool and Primary).
Provide an overall IQ and also yield several composite scores (Verbal Comprehension Index, the Working Memory Index, and the Processing Speed Index).
His theory proposed eight types of intelligence (verbal, mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
The ability to think in words and use language to express meaning (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to carry out mathematical operations (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to think three-dimensionally (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
A sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to understand and effectively interact with others (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to understand oneself (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
The ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems (type of intelligence in Gardner's theory).
Person who popularized emotional intelligence (emphasizes interpersonal, intrapersonal, and practical aspects of intelligence).
Peter Salovey and John Mayer
Initially developed the concept of emotional intelligence.
Discovered the worldwide increase in intelligence test scores over a short time frame.
The worldwide increase in intelligence test scores over a short time frame.
Stated that even something that is highly heritable (like intelligence) may be malleable through interventions.
Conducted the Abecedarian Intervention program at the University of NC at Chapel HIll.
Developed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to assess infant behavior and predict later development.
Studied 140 children between the ages of 2.5 and 17. Found that the average range of IQ scores was more than 28 points.
Emphasizes that some abilities increase throughout the lifespan, whereas others steadily decline from middle adulthood onward.
K. Warner Schaie
Has conducted an extensive study of intellectual abilities during adulthood. Founded the Seattle Longitudinal Study.
The Seattle Longitudinal Study
Tested the mental abilities (verbal comprehension, verbal memory, numeric ability, spatial orientation, inductive reasoning, and perceptual speed).
Clarified the distinction between those aspects of the aging mind that decline and those that remain stable or even improve. He makes a distinction between "cognitive mechanics" and "cognitive pragmatics" that extends the fluid/crystallized intelligence conceptualization.
Conducted the extensive study of 1,500 children whose Stanford-Binet IQs average 150. Discovered that gifted children were socially well adjusted.
Concludes that a child who is truly gifted often is the only child in the room who does not have the opportunity to learn with students of like ability. Stresses that American education will benefit when standards are raised for all children.
Leading expert on creativity. Notes that this five-step sequence provides a helpful framework for thinking about how creative ideas are developed (preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, and elaboration).
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