Deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing animals to obtain sustenance of economic gain.
The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture
2nd Agricultural Revolution
Change in technology, Crop Rotation, better horse collars
3rd Agricultural Revolution
Hybridize grains for better yields ("Green Revolution"), Greater reliance on synthetic fertilizers, Genetically engineered crops, Vertical integration of ownership, Globalization of production
improved rice strains, greater use of fertilizer, increased use of irregation
Any plant cultivated by people.
Argued that cultural landscapes should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry and that natural landscapes have indirectly experienced some sort of alteration over history due to human activity.
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertilization.
Primarily for direct consumption by a local population, usually small scale and low technology.
Primarily for purpose of selling products for money, often monocultures for economies of scale
Labor intensive agriculture
Large amount of human work is applied per unit of output.
Capital intensive agriculture
Large amount of capital (equipment and buildings used to produce other goods) is applied per unit of output.
Created the most widely used map of world agriculture Identified 11 main agricultural regions and divided them into 5 that are important to LDCs and 6 for MDCs
practiced in much of the world's tropical climate regions. Farmers clear land by slashing vegetation and burning the debris (also called slash-and-burn agriculture)
A patch of land cleared for planting through shifting cultivation
primarily in the drylands of Southwest Asia and North Africa, Central Asia, and Asia a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Intensive subsistence agriculture, wet rice not dominant
LDCs, labor intensive, drier regions of Asia (India and Northeastern China), subsistence agriculture, grows things like wheat or barley
The flooded field that rice is grown in
Another word for Sawah
Rotating use of different crops each year from field to field each year to avoid exhaustion of the soil.
Having two harvests a year from the same field. Intensive land use
a large commercial farm in a developing country that specializes in one or two crops.
Mixed crop and livestock
commercial, intensive land use, capital intensive, both livestock and crops are in the same field, most crop is fed to animals, US, Europe
Farm with animals that produce dairy for the dairy, commercial agriculture, intensive land use, depends if capital or labor intensive, Northeastern US and Northwestern Europe obstacles- animals can get diseases, expensive
A nodal region that is producing dairy products that may be supplied to the area of demand
farming over large areas for grains such as wheat and barley, Northern China, Great Plains of the US, Eastern Europe, commercial farming, labor intensive, intensive land use
A farming tool that cuts and gathers crop at harvesting time (when they are ripe)
a machine that harvests grain crops
Commercial grazing if livestock over an extensive area commercial, extensive land use, capital intensive, US, Europe, Central and South America
Southern Europe, North Africa, western Asia, Farmers in California, central Chile, the southwestern part of South Africa, and southwestern Australia All border the sea Commercial agriculture
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process.
Ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist on the same point on a commodity chain
a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops.
Genetically modified food (GMO's)
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific puposes
Von Thunen Model
all revolves around a city High transportation items: milk, eggs, etc. intensive land use-high land rent Forest/lumber Medium Transportation cost- corn, soybeans. More extensive land use Low Transportation cost items- Most extensive land use: ranching/livestock Makes more sense in LDCs in rural areas
Agriculture practices that preserve and enhance environmental quality.
semiarid land degradation
A government payment that supports a business or market
Crops that can be converted into drugs
Intensive land use
Small-area farms or ranches, high inputs of of labor and high output per acre.
Extensive land use
Large-area farms or ranches, low inputs of labor and low output per acre.