AP Human Geography Unit 5 Test

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Terms in this set (...)

Agriculture
Deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing animals to obtain sustenance of economic gain.
Agricultural Revolution
The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture
2nd Agricultural Revolution
Change in technology, Crop Rotation, better horse collars
3rd Agricultural Revolution
Hybridize grains for better yields ("Green Revolution"), Greater reliance on synthetic fertilizers, Genetically engineered crops, Vertical integration of ownership, Globalization of production
Green Revolution
improved rice strains, greater use of fertilizer, increased use of irregation
Crop
Any plant cultivated by people.
Carl Sauer
Argued that cultural landscapes should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry and that natural landscapes have indirectly experienced some sort of alteration over history due to human activity.
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertilization.
Agricultural hearths (locations only)
Latin America- squash, pepper, maize, potato
Sub-Saharan Africa- Yam, sorghum, coffee
Southwest Asia- Barley, oats, olive
East Asia- Rice, soybean, walnut
Southeast Asia- mango, taro, coconut
Subsistence agriculture
Primarily for direct consumption by a local population, usually small scale and low technology.
Commercial agriculture
Primarily for purpose of selling products for money, often monocultures for economies of scale
Labor intensive agriculture
Large amount of human work is applied per unit of output.
Capital intensive agriculture
Large amount of capital (equipment and buildings used to produce other goods) is applied per unit of output.
Derwent Whittlesey
Created the most widely used map of world agriculture
Identified 11 main agricultural regions and divided them into 5 that are important to LDCs and 6 for MDCs
Shifting cultivation
practiced in much of the world's tropical climate regions.
Farmers clear land by slashing vegetation and burning the debris (also called slash-and-burn agriculture)
Swidden
A patch of land cleared for planting through shifting cultivation
Pastoral nomadism
primarily in the drylands of Southwest Asia and North Africa, Central Asia, and Asia
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Intensive subsistence agriculture, wet rice not dominant
LDCs, labor intensive, drier regions of Asia (India and Northeastern China), subsistence agriculture, grows things like wheat or barley
Sawah
The flooded field that rice is grown in
Paddy
Another word for Sawah
Crop rotation
Rotating use of different crops each year from field to field each year to avoid exhaustion of the soil.
Double Cropping
Having two harvests a year from the same field.
Intensive land use
Plantation
a large commercial farm in a developing country that specializes in one or two crops.
Mixed crop and livestock
commercial, intensive land use, capital intensive, both livestock and crops are in the same field, most crop is fed to animals, US, Europe
Dairy farming
Farm with animals that produce dairy for the dairy, commercial agriculture, intensive land use, depends if capital or labor intensive, Northeastern US and Northwestern Europe
obstacles- animals can get diseases, expensive
Milkshed
A nodal region that is producing dairy products that may be supplied to the area of demand
Grain farming
farming over large areas for grains such as wheat and barley, Northern China, Great Plains of the US, Eastern Europe, commercial farming, labor intensive, intensive land use
Reaper
A farming tool that cuts and gathers crop at harvesting time (when they are ripe)
Combine
a machine that harvests grain crops
Livestock ranching
Commercial grazing if livestock over an extensive area
commercial, extensive land use, capital intensive, US, Europe, Central and South America
Mediterranean agriculture
Southern Europe, North Africa, western Asia, Farmers in California, central Chile, the southwestern part of South Africa, and southwestern Australia
All border the sea
Commercial agriculture
Truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
Commercial gardening
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Vertical integration
An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process.
Horizontal integration
Ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist on the same point on a commodity chain
Industrial agriculture
a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops.
Genetically modified food (GMO's)
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific puposes
Von Thunen Model
all revolves around a city
High transportation items: milk, eggs, etc. intensive land use-high land rent
Forest/lumber
Medium Transportation cost- corn, soybeans. More extensive land use
Low Transportation cost items- Most extensive land use: ranching/livestock
Makes more sense in LDCs in rural areas
Sustainable agriculture
Agriculture practices that preserve and enhance environmental quality.
Desertification
semiarid land degradation
Subsidies
A government payment that supports a business or market
Drug crops
Crops that can be converted into drugs
Intensive land use
Small-area farms or ranches, high inputs of of labor and high output per acre.
Extensive land use
Large-area farms or ranches, low inputs of labor and low output per acre.