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History Europe: Chapters 24-27

Terms in this set (92)

- June 28: assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand by Serbian Revolutionaries- Yugoslavs want to be free from Austrian rule
- 1900-1914: Western powers force Ottomans to give up their territories in Europe; ethnic nationalism ensues, destroying Ottoman Empire and threatening Austria-Hungary
- Serbia wants to build state (hostile towards Ottomans and Austria-Hungary because they both ruled Serbian minorities) => 1908: Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina to block Serbian expansion => Serbia enraged but needs help from Russia => First Balkan War (1912) Serbia + Greece + Bulgaria attack Ottoman Empire; Serbia quarrels with Bulgaria over won territory => Second Balkan War (1913) Bulgaria attacks Serbia, Austria intervenes and forces Serbia to give up Albania
- Germany pushes Austria to confront Serbia; William II and his Chancellor realize that war between Russia and Austria likely but hoped (and thought) that GB would stay neutral => Germany tells Austria that it will support it unconditionally in case of war => Austria is excited
- July 23: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with ultimatum (against Serbian sovereignty) => Serbia replies evasively => Austria mobilizes armies and declares war on Serbia to save its empire
- Russia needed more time to mobilize armies (it's a BIG country and it has to fight at two fronts: Austria and Germany) > July 29: Russia declares war
- Schlieffen Plan: Failed German plan calling for the quick attack on France through neutral Belgium before turning to Russian front (STUPID, STUPID PLAN) => German armies invade Belgium => GB declares war on Germany
- People shocked, in panic, and super-excited; enthusiastic pro-war slogans: WOHOOOOO WAAAR
- Eastern front no trench warfare; fighting dominated by Germany; Germany won major victories and occupied huge lands of Russian empire in Central Europe but Russia still didn't leave the war => Germans install big military bureaucracy in occupied lands and create anti-Slavic prejudice and forced labor, steal animals, and kill 1/3 of civilians - Germany wanted this land for itself
- Hopes for territorial gains brought other countries into the war: Italy joins Triple Entente in 1915 for promises of Austrian territory
- 1914- war carried into Middle East: Ottomans and Bulgaria join Austria and Germany/ 1915: Armenians welcome Russian armies as liberators => Ottomans (supported by Germans) order mass deportation of Armenians (modern ethnic cleansing, ARMENIAN GENOCIDE, a million Armenians die)
- 1915: British try to take Constantinople from Ottomans= FAIL => British incite Arabs to revolt against Ottomans; bargain with Arab leader Hussein Ibn-Ali and encourage him to fight for an independent Arab Kingdom => Hussein and UK succeed in guerilla war against Ottomans
- UK captures Iraq by 1917 and enters with other Arab into Syria; Arabs now really want an Arab-Kingdom (FAIL)
- War spread to Africa and East Asia too; Germany wanted colonial subjects of UK and France to revolt but the colonialists actually supported them + fought against German colonies; France especially made a lot of troops out of its colonial subjects
- April 1917: US declares war on Germany because of 1) War at Sea and 2) general sympathy for Triple Entente
- At begging of war, France and UK made naval blockade to strangle Central Powers => 1915: Germany retaliates with fatal submarine (kills some British and Americans) => Woodrow Wilson protests vigorously and uses this to sway public opinion against Germans => Germany halts submarine warfare for 2 years => 1917: Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare => US declares war on Germany => US helps Triple Entente win war
- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) proclaimed that the optimistic Christian order of the West was obsolete, and that it stifled creativity and excellence. He called for superior individuals to recognize the emptiness of social convention and the meaninglessness of individual life.

-The Frenchman Henri Bergson (1859-1941) argued that immediate experience and intuition were at least as important as rational thinking and science.

-Georges Sorel (1847-1922) described Marxian socialism as an inspiring religion, not a scientific truth. He believed that after the workers' revolution a small revolutionary elite would have to run society.

-World War I accelerated change in philosophical thought. Change took two main directions.
In English-speaking countries, logical empiricism dominated.

-Logical empiricism: A philosophy that sees meaning in only those beliefs that can be empirically proven, and that therefore rejects most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness as nonsense.

-Ludwig Wittgenstein reduced philosophy to the study of language, arguing that philosophers could not make meaningful statements about God, freedom, morality, and so on.

-Existentialism: A philosophy that stresses the meaningless of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world. (generally were atheist)
-Existentialism first gained popularity in Germany in the 1920s as Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers attracted followers.

-The Revival of Christianity
Loss of faith in human reason and progress led to renewed interest in Christianity.