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Midterm 3: E
Terms in this set (67)
How the area processed visual info
What can recording from single neurons in the visual cortex determine?
Basic visual characteristics (Colours, edges, orientation, contrast borders, simple visual movement)
What do cells in the visual cortex respond to?
Cells start to respond to touch stimulation associated with reading Braille
What happens to the visual cortex in people who are blind from birth?
Yes (Braille is a discriminative touch ability)
What would happen if the visual cortex is damaged by a stroke in a person who has been blind since birth, would it affect their ability to read Braille?
No (Non-discriminative task and that area is still intact)
What would happen if the visual cortex is damaged by a stroke in a person who has been blind since birth, would it affect other touch sensations like discriminating a coin from a key?
Yes (Their ability to read Braille developed in a different area)
What would happen if the same stroke affected someone who became blind later in life, would they still be able to read Braille?
Uses visual info by the cerebral cortex
The visual action stream where visual info about the location of objects travels from occipital to parietal, then to the premotor cortex to help control movement; "Where & How" stream
Carries visual recognition of objects to the temporal lobe; "What" stream
Interactions between the two streams
What is the middle stream between the dorsal and ventral stream thought to be responsible for?
Pre-motor and pre-frontal cortex
What two places do both streams travel to?
What kind of processing does the dorsal stream possess?
What kind of processing does the ventral stream possess?
Location, movement, spatial transformations, spatial relations
What aspects does spatial processing include?
Colour, texture, pictorial detail, shape, size
What aspects does object processing include?
Yes (but there is some cerebral asymmetry)
Does each stream travel to both hemispheres?
Visual recognition of words (linked to Broca's area)
What is the left occipital lobe more involved in?
Visual recognition to faces
What is the right occipital lobe involved in?
Specialized functions of each hemisphere
Left cerebral hemisphere
Contains general interpretive center, responsible for language-based skills, premotor cortex controlling hand movements, important in performing analytical tasks
Right cerebral hemisphere
Analyzes sensory info & relates body to sensory environment, important in analyzing emotional context of conversation
Identify familiar objects by touch, smell, sight, taste, feel
What does the interpretive center allow you to do?
What kind of matching task is the dorsal stream activated in?
What kind of matching task is the ventral stream activated in?
Deficits in perceiving portions of space or visual motion
What can damage to the dorsal stream cause?
Motion blindness; cannot perceive motion in their visual field
Deficits in perceiving object colour, shape (etc.. - leading to loss of recognition)
What can damage to the ventral stream cause?
Propsopagnosia (difficulty recognizing faces)
What can a stroke affecting the specific areas of the ventral stream that process face stimuli lead to?
Problems with perception; unconscious decreased awareness of part of the visual field usually due to loass of visual field & visual perception
What side of the brain results in a more severe injury neglect?
What does a stroke affecting the right parietal cortex result in?
Can't recognize objects or faces ("face blind")
Damage to the occipital lobe
Same side of visual field is affected for both eyes
Inability to obtain visual info
Blindness due to damage in the cortex
Occipital or ventral stream damage
Occipital or ventral stream damage (RH) uses vocal recognition strategies
Visual motion problems
What does dorsal stream damage result in?
Visual ventral stream
What needs to be paired with memory for recognition?
Projects from the retina to the midbrain and to the lateral geniculate
What does visual information relayed by the lateral geniculate to the visual cortex provide?
Fixation, smooth pursuit, saccades, vergence
What can eye movements be divided into?
Eyes are directed toward a motionless object, with eye movements only to compensate for movements of the head
Eyes move steadily to track a moving object
Eyes move very rapidly from one location to another
Eyes move simultaneously in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision
What is involved in all the different types of eye movements?
A change in curvature of the lens, change in contraction of the pupil, and change in the position of the eyes in response to viewing a near object
Loss of vision from the right eye
What happens If a lesion is present at the optic nerve in the right eye?
Causes bitemporal hemianopsia (loss of the temporal visual field from both eyes)
What happens if a lesion is present in the middle of the optic chiasm?
Loss of vision from the contralateral visual field of both eyes
What happens if a lesion is present in the optic tract, which would completely interrupt tracts posterior to the optic chiasm?
Partial loss of vision from the contralateral visual field
What would an incomplete lesion of the tracts posterior to the optic chiasm cause?
What do signals arriving in the pretectal area produce?
Orientation and eye movement control
What are signals arriving in the tectum used for?
Induces saccadic eye movements, smooth eye pursuit; required for spatially directed movements (reaching, body turns, walking)
Involved in mediating behavioural responses to changes in light; pupillary light reflex, optokinetic reflex, changes to circadian rhythm
Pupillary light reflex
Can be used as a clinical assessment of the efficacy of mesencephalon; When light is shone in 1 eye, both pupils constrict even in the presence of cortical damage causing blindness (this reflex is directed through the midbrain)
Difficulty recognizing faces; due to bilateral damage to secondary visual areas (part of ventral stream); learn to identify people by voices or mannerisms
Visual form agnosia
Difficulty recognizing line drawings of objects
An inability to recognize, copy, or match shapes; impaired object recognition
Inability to distinguish different colours
Inability to determine orientations of objects
Inability to understand gestures
Inability to recognize landmarks
Inability to sort out objects in a visual scene
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Myers' Psychology for AP
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Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
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