Ch.2 civics

A. Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
A. Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
A. Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
E. Plantation System
A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of labor and the environment. This system focused on the production of cash crops and utilized slave labor.
E. Mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
E. Indentured Servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
E. Slavery
work done under harsh conditions for little or no pay
E. Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
E. Triangular Trade Route
three-sided trade route between the 13 Colonies, the West Indies, and Africa; included the slave trade
G. Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
G. Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
G. Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
G. Catholics
The first group of formally established Christians in Europe under the pope
G. American Indian
the earliest inhibitants of the continent (oldest minority group) in 1924, congress made A.I. citizens of the U.S. and gave them the right to vote.
D. Religious Dissenters
those who followed a religious faith other than the official religion of england
F Bacon's Rebellion
People who followed a faith other than the offical religion of England, a 1676 raid led by Nathaniel Bacon against the governor and Native Americans in Virginia
B. Town Meetings
a gathering of all eligible voters to debate issues and pass laws
E. Joint-Stock Company
an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
A. Proprietary Colony
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment
A. Royal Colony
a colony under direct control of the king
B. Self-Governing Colony
A type of colony in which the people of the colony chose the governor of the colony. Rhode Island was a self-governing colony.
D. Salem Witch Trials
in the 1680's and 1690's adolescent girls of Salem, Massachusetts, accused several West Indian servants of voodoo lore, and hundreds of people (mostly women) of witchcraft (exercising of satanic powers), ending with 19 being put to death, and the girls who had been the accusers, admitting that they fabricated their story. This was one of the many examples of hysteria and chaos that broke out due to the tensions that built in Puritan communities.
B. Magna Carta (Great Charter)
Thirteenth-century agreement between the English king and nobles, limiting the power of the monarch.
B. Parliament
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
B. Common Law
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
B. Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
B. House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
B. Social Contract Theory
A voluntary agreement between the government and the governed
C. Natural Rights
The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called human rights.
C. Civic Virtue (Common Good)
..., Civic Virtue is something that Classical Republican Philosophers held dear. It was believed that people like George Washington possessed C.V and that all americans should strive to be like them. Although they thought that C.V must be learned and that it was the responsibility of the entire community to teach the young.
C. Classical Republicanism
One of the four alternative forms of government; sees people (and government) as mostly good but corruptible and so government should have restricted power and try to encourage a good moral climate.
F. 1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
F. 2nd Continental Congress
Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution
B. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
B. English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
B. Limited Government
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
C. Republic
a form of government whose head of state is not a monarch
E. Favorable Balance of Trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
F. French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
F. Writs of Assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
F. Proclamation Act of 1763
prohitibted colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Prevent future hostilities between colonists and Native Americans. Colonists reacted with anger and defiance
F. Quartering Act
Act which required colonies to provide food and lodging for British troops
F. Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
F. Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
F. Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
F. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
F. Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
G. John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
F. Shot Heard Round The World"
The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.
F. Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
F. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
F. Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
F. Thomas Paine's Common Sense
1776- Paine argued for independence, directly attacking allegiance to the monarchy, refocusing hostility previously vented on Parliament. The pamphlet was published anonymously in Philadelphia. He proved himself the consummate Revolutionary rhetorician. The Common sense of the matter, it seemed, was that King George III bore the responsibility for the malevolence toward the colonist. Before Paine, few colonists thought Independence was an option.
A. Salutary Neglect
idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference
A. Navigation Actions
is to process reading, and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another
A. Beginning Of Public School
The US had a demand for general skills rather than specific training/apprenticeships
D. 1st Great Awakening
religious movement that featured preaching from evangelists who believed colonist needed to be called back to sincere Christian committment.