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who discovered xrays

Professor Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1895)

who was the first to use a lead apron

Professor Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

who are the three people that may have taken the first radiograph in the US?

C.E. Kells
W.J. Morton
W.H. Rollins

Who published xlight kills

W.H. Rollins

Who was the first to make a dental radiograph

O. Walkhoff

It takes ________ energy to remove an eletron from a K shell than from outer shells


Most wavelengths used in dentistry vary from ____ to ____ A.U.

0.1 - 1.0

Name the type of radiation produced when a bombarding electron from the tube filament dislodges a K shell electron of the tungstontarget

characteristic radiation
(vs. General or bremsstrahlung which represents the majority of radiation produced and occurs when high speed electrons are stopped or slowed down by the tungsten atoms)

When an entering high speed electron is slowed down there is a loss of energy that is given off as xray or ______.

Heat - mainly generating heat, very little xrays actually produced

The desired type of radiation is called ________ and may only occur above ____ kVP with a tungston target

70 kVP

Systeme International (SI) unit for exposure:

coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)

SI unit for absorbed dose

gray (Gy)

SI unit for dose equivalent

sievert (Sv)

The ________ is the negative electrode in the x-ray tube and contains the tungsten wire and focusing cup


The _________ is the positive electrode in the x-ray tube and contains the target and copper stem/radiator


When the filament in the x-ray tube is heated electrons from metal escape. This boiling off of electrons is called ________ ________.

thermionic emission

How thick must aluminum be for machines 69kVp or lower?

1.5 mm

How thick must aluminum be for machines 70-90 kVp ?

2.5 mm

The purpose of the cathode is to

supply electrons neccesary to produce xrays. Also contains the tungsten wire/fillament and focusing cup.

If a herringbone pattern appears on a developed film x-ray what has occurred?

the clinician put the film packet in the XCP backwards

what is the main difference between manual and automatic processing?

with automatic processing the film goes directly from the developer to the fixer W/OUT a rinse

For manual processing of xrays there is a narrow range of temperature.
a. What is this range?
b. what is optium?

a. 60-75 degrees F
b. 68 degrees F

Motion of the tube head, even if slight, will produce a larger surface area of the focal spot (and magnification of the image) resulting in a


For manual processing of xrays, processing time is dependent on __________

the temperature of the solutions.

Developer: This converts exposed silver halide crystals into black metalic sillver...

Elon & hydroquinone (developer)

Developer: This prevents rapid oxidation of the developing agents...

sodium sulfite (preservative)

Developer: This softens the gelatin for the developing agents to work..

sodium carbonate (activato

Developer: This keeps the reducing agents from developiong enexposed silver halides to produce fog.

Potassium bromide (restrainer)

What is the name of the solution that stops the development process and hardens and removes silver halide crystals?


Fixer: This clears away the unexposed silver bromide crystals

Sodium thiosulfate (cleaning solution)

Fixer: This maintains chemical balance

(Sodium sulfite )preservative

Fixer:This shrinks and hardens the emulsion

Potassium aluminum sulfate ( hardener)

Fixer: This neutralizes the developer:

acetic acid (acidifier)

be able to id nutrient canals and nutrient foramens


The widening of the PDL indicative of occlusal trauma such as bruxing is called


know anatomy on pano


If starbursts appear on a pano film what error has the clinician made

removing the film from the packet too quickly causing static electricity

What is the SLOB rule?

- if object in question shifts in the SAME direction it is on the lingual
- If object in question shifts in the opposite direction it is on the buccal

the amount of radiation that comes out of the xray and unit and reaches the person is called?


the amount of xray energy actually deposited within the body tissues is called

dose/absorbed dose

which tissues are most sensitive to radiation?
the least?

-reproductive cells
-bone marrow
-small lymphocyte
-reproductive mucosa


review inverse square law - chap 5 powerpoint


the MPD (maximum permissible dose) for occupationally exposed people is

5 rem/yr = .05 microsieverts OR 5,000 millirem = 50millisieverts

The MPD for non-occupationally exposed people is

.5rem/yr = .0005microsieverts OR 500 millirem = 5 millisieverts

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