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What does the HIV virus bind to that makes the patient susceptible to secondary infections?
CD 4 on Helper T cells (no directions are given to other WBC)
What makes up the core of a virus?
Nucleic acid - DNA or RNA in any form (single, double, fragmented)
How do viruses that are enveloped helical viruses obtain their envelope?
when leaving the host cell they obtain it
What are the spikes on an enveloped helical virus for and what are they made of?
For attachment and detachment, made of Protein and glycoproteins
What is an additional function of the spikes on an enveloped helical virus besides attachment and detachment?
Agglutination - clumping of the hosts cells
What are some ways that we are able to study viruses?
Human tissue samples
HeLa - Cancerous cells used from 1950's
What is the stages of the Lytic cycle?
What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the use of the lysozyme?
Insertion (ONLY FOR BACTERIOPHAGES INFECTING BACTERIA)
What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the host making the viruses parts and chopping up the viruses DNA?
What occurs to the genetic material of a cell when it is invaded during a lysogenic cycle?
Genetic recombination (viral nucleic acid incorporates into host genome)
What is the viruses called once its nucleic acid has invaded a bacteria's genome during the lysogenic cycle?
What is a cell called once it has been invaded during the lysogenic cycle and its genome has been invaded by the viruses nucleic acid and the cell remains inactive?
Latent prophage (person could be asymptomatic)
What are the three results of Lysogenic infection?
1. Immunity to reinfection by the exact same virus
2. Phage conversion
3. Specialized transduction
What are some examples of bacteria that require phage conversion to be effective?
What result of Lysogenic infection results in the host cell being converted by the phage's DNA?
What is a result of lysogenic infection that results in a genetic transfer?
Specialized transduction (host cell is changed because it acquired the bacterial genes carried from the virus)
What happens to the viruses envelope during exocytosis?
Creates the envelope by taking some of the host's cell membrane with it
What is the stage during viral replication in Eukaryotes when the virus uses the hosts cell's organelles to make more core and capsid?
What does the virus turn the host cells' RNA polymerace into?
Transcriptase (same thing, just different name)
What is something unique about RNA in viruses?
They can have additional + and - strands, called sense and antisense strands
What are the 3 functions of RNA + strands?
1. Can serve as mRNA
2. Can serve as core in newly created virus
3. serve as a template to make more core
What are the first three herpes viruses names and causes?
1. HHV1/HSV1 - fever blisters/cold sores
2. HHV2/HSV2 - Genital herpes
3. HHV3/HSV3 - Varicella - Zoster
Herpes - Zoster
Chicken pox - shingles
What are the 4th-8th herpes viruses?
4. HHV4 - (Mono) Lymphocrypto virus
Epstein Barr Virus
> Burkitts Lymphoma (jaw cancer)
>Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (nose and throat cancer)
5. HHV5 - CMV (Cytomeglia Virus)
6. HHV6 - Roseola
7. HHV7 - Roseola
8. HHV8 - Kaposis Sarcoma (cancer - HIV patients are prone to getting)
What makes Hep C concerning as far as its ability to be stable in O2?
Transmission through respiration
What are some of the external changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?
1. loss of contact inhibition (cause excessive growth with no function)
2. Syncytium (fusion of the cells)
3. Permeability changes
4. Ag change (so immune either ignores cell or attacks it)
What are some of the internal changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?
1. Inclusion bodies
2. DNA changes
3. Changes in cellular functions
What is the function of Alpha and Beta interferons?
They are released by infected cells to warn healthy ones so they will build intercellular antiviral proteins
What is the defense mechanism the body has with healthy cells if they have been warned of infection by alpha and beta interferons?
Build intracellular antiviral proteins
What are some of the change to DNA that viruses can make?
Turn genes on and/or off and mutate the genes
What is the effect of polio on a cell?
Interferes with the lysosomes (the digestive enzymes in a cell)
What is a method for studying bacteriaphages by looking at the clearings they create on a bacteria lawn?
What is used for studying viruses that allow the virus to proliferate and shows the tissues it attacks?
What are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?
2. Pick up fats and lipid soluble vitamins and returns it to the blood (Vit A, D, E, K)
3. Pick up lost tissue fluid and returns it to the blood
What is a bubble of lymph that creates movement of the lymph when the diaphram pushes on it?
what percentage of WBCs does Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils make?
5% in decreasing order - M, E, B
if there is no infection and macrophages arrive, what are two things that could happen to them?
they either die or cause an autoimmune response by attacking the healthy cells
how do Natural Killer cells attack a virus?
shoot cytotoxic chemicals (but not as accurately as T cytotoxic cells)
what do Eosinophils attack and cause?
-a part of allergic reactions
-eat Ag/Ab complexes
-cause oxidative burst
why do a lot of RBCs accumulate in the spleen?
they are old and about to be destroyed but are kept there in case of major blood loss (still functional)
what are the forms of non-specific defence?
physical and chemical barriers (1st line)
complement proteins (2nd line)
what are some of the physical barriers our body has to keep out pathogens?
-flushing mechanisms (includes sweat, tears, oil, vomiting, defecation, urination, and cilia)
-our own microbes
what are some of the chemical barriers our body uses to keep out pathogens?
-high salt content of our skin
-acids (in sweat oil, vaginal fluids)
-lysozymes (destroys cell membranes and is in sweat and tears, also includes IgG)
when is the Ab IgG used in non-specific defense and when is it used in specific defense?
non-specific if in body secretions
specific if in the blood
what isq it called when T cells that have failed their education a "shot on sight"?
what is it called when failed T cells are released with a lack of ability to respond, and pose no threat?
what vaccine is given to prevent B. Pertussis, and what protein is injected with the vaccine?
D Tap, includes acellular pertussis and the protein Tetnus
what are the three initial pathways that lead to the common pathway?
What complement protein is activated in the common pathway and what happens to it?
C3 divides into C3a and C3b
what does complement protein C3 cause when it becomes C3b?
Opsonization and MAC (membrane attack complex)
what are the two chemicals that blow up the membrane or the nucleus of a germor infected cell?
perforin and granulysins
what are the four different types of immunity?
What are some other names for Antibodies?
Immunoglobulins (Ig) and Gamma Globulin Glycoproteins (GGGP)
Whare the functions of IgM?
-First to arrive at the site of infection
-Fixes (stimulates) complements
What are the functions of IgG?
-Activates natural killer cells
-Most abundant in blood stream
-Primary Ab in secondary exposure to Ag "Desensitizing"
What is different about the clones of the T helper cells?
Have receptors that match the complex better
What are two chemicals that T cells release?
Perforin - Pokes holes in CM or CW
Lymphotoxin - blows up nucleus
Gamma Interferons (G-IFN) - elicit the phagocytes
What are the four types of autoimmune responses?
3. Immune complex
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