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What kind of parasite is a virus?

Obligate intracellular parasite

What parts of the body do most viruses effect?

Respiratory and GI

What is the typical duration of a virus?

7 days

What is the typical time for the acute infection of a virus?

1-2 days

What are three viruses that will never go away once someone has contracted it?

HIV, Heb B, Hep C

What does the HIV virus bind to that makes the patient susceptible to secondary infections?

CD 4 on Helper T cells (no directions are given to other WBC)

What is a complete virus (capsid and core) called?


What makes up the core of a virus?

Nucleic acid - DNA or RNA in any form (single, double, fragmented)

What makes up the capsid of the virus?

Protein coat

What is the protein coat of a virus called?


What are the two shapes of viruses?

Polyhedral and helical

What is the name of the 20 equilateral triangles that make up most polyhedral viruses?


What part of the virus do the shapes Polyhedral and helical refer to?

The capsule

What is a complex virus?

A bacteriaphage

What is an example of a complex virus?


What shape do most bacteriaphages have?

Cylindrical, polyhedral head and extra parts

How do viruses that are enveloped helical viruses obtain their envelope?

when leaving the host cell they obtain it

What are the spikes on an enveloped helical virus for and what are they made of?

For attachment and detachment, made of Protein and glycoproteins

What is an additional function of the spikes on an enveloped helical virus besides attachment and detachment?

Agglutination - clumping of the hosts cells

What does the H in H1N1 stand for?

Hemaglutinin (for attachment)

What does the N in H1N1 stand for?

Neuraminidase (Detachment)

What parts of an enveloped helical virus can change?

The spikes and the DNA

What are some ways that we are able to study viruses?

Human tissue samples
HeLa - Cancerous cells used from 1950's

What is the host range of a virus?

The host's tissues being targeted

What is the stages of the Lytic cycle?

1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Biosynthesis
4. Maturation
5. Release

What is the most ineffective phase of the Lytic cycle?

The maturation phase

What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the use of the lysozyme?


What phase of the Lytic cycle requires the host making the viruses parts and chopping up the viruses DNA?


What phase of the Lytic cycle requires putting all the parts together?


Which cycle results in the cell's death, Lytic or Lysogenic?


What phase of the Lytic cycle is when the virus leaves and goes from cell to cell to cell?


How does the virus exit a cell for release in the Lytic cycle?

They require the lysozyme again

What is the period of time between the infection and the virion completion?

Eclipse period

What is the term for studying viruses in a petri dish or in a cell culture?

One step experiment

What is the name of the time until a virus leaves a cell?

Burst time

What is the term for the number of virions that leave a cell?

Burst size

Which cycle for viruses is termed temperate or mild?

Lysogenic cycle

What occurs to the genetic material of a cell when it is invaded during a lysogenic cycle?

Genetic recombination (viral nucleic acid incorporates into host genome)

What is the viruses called once its nucleic acid has invaded a bacteria's genome during the lysogenic cycle?


What is a cell called once it has been invaded during the lysogenic cycle and its genome has been invaded by the viruses nucleic acid and the cell remains inactive?

Latent prophage (person could be asymptomatic)

What are the three results of Lysogenic infection?

1. Immunity to reinfection by the exact same virus
2. Phage conversion
3. Specialized transduction

What are some examples of bacteria that require phage conversion to be effective?

C. botulinum

What result of Lysogenic infection results in the host cell being converted by the phage's DNA?

Phage conversion

What is a result of lysogenic infection that results in a genetic transfer?

Specialized transduction (host cell is changed because it acquired the bacterial genes carried from the virus)

What can cause a latent prophage to "pop out"?

UV light or certain chemicals

What is something different about animal cells compared to bacteria?

No cell wall

What is it called when a virus enters a cell?


What is it called when a virus leaves a cell?


What happens to the viruses envelope during endocytosis?

Leaves it behind

What happens to the viruses envelope during exocytosis?

Creates the envelope by taking some of the host's cell membrane with it

Does the cell die during exocytosis?

No, it survives usually

What happens to the capsid when a virus enters a cell?

Uncoating (unique to Eukaryotes)

What is the stage during viral replication in Eukaryotes when the virus uses the hosts cell's organelles to make more core and capsid?


What does the virus turn the host cells' RNA polymerace into?

Transcriptase (same thing, just different name)

What are the early genes of the virus?

The ones that have to do with replication of the core

What are the late genes of the virus?

The ones that have to do with replication of the capsid

What is the reverse transcriptase?

The host cell's DNA polymerase

What are two examples of viruses that are retro?

Hep B and HIV

What kind of virus is HIV, RNA or DNA?


What kind of virus is Hep B, RNA or DNA?


What kind of virus is Hep A, RNA or DNA?


What kind of virus is Hep C, RNA or DNA?


What is the virus called once it has recombined into the hosts genome?


What is something unique about RNA in viruses?

They can have additional + and - strands, called sense and antisense strands

What are the 3 functions of RNA + strands?

1. Can serve as mRNA
2. Can serve as core in newly created virus
3. serve as a template to make more core

What is the function of - RNA strands?

Serve as a template to make + strands

What is a respiratory virus that is double stranded?


What is a the family of viruses that Papilloma and Polyoma's are a part of?


What are the two viruses that are in the Papovaviridae?

Papilloma and Polyoma

What virus attaches to a nerve cell and is latent?


What are the first three herpes viruses names and causes?

1. HHV1/HSV1 - fever blisters/cold sores
2. HHV2/HSV2 - Genital herpes
3. HHV3/HSV3 - Varicella - Zoster
Herpes - Zoster
Chicken pox - shingles

What are the 4th-8th herpes viruses?

4. HHV4 - (Mono) Lymphocrypto virus
Epstein Barr Virus
> Burkitts Lymphoma (jaw cancer)
>Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (nose and throat cancer)
5. HHV5 - CMV (Cytomeglia Virus)
6. HHV6 - Roseola
7. HHV7 - Roseola
8. HHV8 - Kaposis Sarcoma (cancer - HIV patients are prone to getting)

What is the name of small and cow pox?


What is a unique feature of poxviridae?

Make their own transcriptase

What is the family of Hep B?


Where is Hep A transmitted from?

Shellfish (will go away)

What makes Hep C concerning as far as its ability to be stable in O2?

Transmission through respiration

What are the cancer causing viruses called?


What family of viruses does HIV belong to?


What family of viruses does 5th disease belong to?


What is the term for a viruses effect on a cell?

CPE - Cytopathic effect

What are some of the external changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?

1. loss of contact inhibition (cause excessive growth with no function)
2. Syncytium (fusion of the cells)
3. Permeability changes
4. Ag change (so immune either ignores cell or attacks it)
5. Interferons

What are some of the internal changes that can occur to a cell after it has been infected by a virus?

1. Inclusion bodies
2. DNA changes
3. Changes in cellular functions

What are some important interferons?


What is the function of Alpha and Beta interferons?

They are released by infected cells to warn healthy ones so they will build intercellular antiviral proteins

What is the function of Gamma interferons?

1. Attract phagocytes
2. Keep phagocytes stationary

What is the defense mechanism the body has with healthy cells if they have been warned of infection by alpha and beta interferons?

Build intracellular antiviral proteins

What are the left over viral parts left in a cell?

Inclusion bodies

What are some of the change to DNA that viruses can make?

Turn genes on and/or off and mutate the genes

What is the function of a herpes virus on a cell?

Slows down cell division, mitosis

What is the effect of polio on a cell?

Interferes with the lysosomes (the digestive enzymes in a cell)

What is the effect of measles on cells?

Interleukin passed between cells

What is a latent virus?

Someone with chicken pox - occasional outbreak

What are some viruses that build up over time?

Hep B
Hep C

What are viruses that have the capacity to cause cancers called?


What is a genetic change in a host cell?


What is a cell marker that alerts the host body that it no longer is functional?


What is a nuclear marker that alerts the host body that it is no longer functional?

T Ag

What are viruses that attack other tumors called?

Oncolytic viruses

What are some ways to classify a virus?

-host range
-type of capsomeres

What is a method for studying bacteriaphages by looking at the clearings they create on a bacteria lawn?


What is used for studying viruses that allow the virus to proliferate and shows the tissues it attacks?

Embryonic eggs

Why aren't animals used to study viruses?

too expensive

What are the cell lines that can grow in a petri dish?


How long do cell lines from 1 last?

A few generations

How long do cell lines from 2 last?

they are diploid cells and will last 100 generations

What is an example of a continuous cell line?

HaLa (cancerous cells from the 1950's)

What is naked RNA that is only usually found in plants?


What does a plant have if it is spindly, white and/or with spotted leaves?

plant viral infection

What are some infectious proteins?


What are three examples of infectious protein diseases?

BSE (Mad Cow)

What do the prion diseases cause?

Encephalopathy (spongy brain)

What are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?

1. Immunity
2. Pick up fats and lipid soluble vitamins and returns it to the blood (Vit A, D, E, K)
3. Pick up lost tissue fluid and returns it to the blood

What are two methods for movement of lymph?

Skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump

What is a bubble of lymph that creates movement of the lymph when the diaphram pushes on it?

Cisterna chyli

What duct helps return 3/4 or 75% of the bodies lymph?

The left lymphatic duct/thoracic duct

How much lymph does the right lymphatic duct move?


What is connected to the left lymphatic/thoracic duct?

Cisterna chyli

what is edema?

swelling of lost tissue fluid

where are lymph nodes located?

mammory gland

what is the ratio of WBC to RBC?

1 WBC/1000 RBC

what is the measurements of RBC in the blood?


what is the measurement of percentage of WBC in the blood?


what is the total number of WBCs and RBCs in the body?

CBC complete blood count

what percentage of WBCs is made up of Neutrophils?

60% - 70%

what percentage of WBCs is made up of Lymphocytes?


what percentage of WBCs does Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils make?

5% in decreasing order - M, E, B

what WBCs are the first to arrive at the site of infection?


The presence of what WBC signals a recent infection?


if there is no infection and macrophages arrive, what are two things that could happen to them?

they either die or cause an autoimmune response by attacking the healthy cells

what cells make up the Lymphocytes?

T cells, B cells and Natural Killer cells

what are two types of T cells?

T cytotoxic and T helper

what do B cells become in an immune response?

plasma cells

how do plasma cells attack a virus?

secrete Ab

how do T cytotoxic cells attack a virus?

shoot cytotoxic chemicals

how do Natural Killer cells attack a virus?

shoot cytotoxic chemicals (but not as accurately as T cytotoxic cells)

where are T cells "educated"?


where are B cells produced?

red bone marrow

which WBC are involved in specific immunity?

T and B cells

what do Eosinophils attack and cause?

-parasitic worms
-a part of allergic reactions
-eat Ag/Ab complexes
-cause oxidative burst

what do basophils cause?

allergic reactions
release of histomine

what are things that histomines will cause?

vasodilation and brochial constriction

what does it mean if a lymph node is swollen and tender?

usually an infection

what can it mean if a lymph node is swollen but not tender?

can mean a blockage or cancer

where is the spleen located?

upper left of abdomen

what is the spleen made of?

red and white pulp

what makes up the red pulp in the speen?

RBCs and platelets

why do a lot of RBCs accumulate in the spleen?

they are old and about to be destroyed but are kept there in case of major blood loss (still functional)

what analyzes an infection that enters the skin first?

lymph nodes

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