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World History Chapter 17 (Terms and People)
Terms in this set (52)
"rebirth"; an outpouring of intellectual/artistic energy and talent in Europe from around 1300 to 1600
view of life characterized by an interest in man and the beauty and opportunities existence on earth
technique used to give painting depth
"light and dark"; use of light and shade to portray human form and emotions
paintings on wet plaster
style of architecture which blended Gothic architecture with the Classical columns of Italian architects
dislike of, contempt for, or ingrained prejudice against women
"no place"; an ideal place or society; originally from a book by Thomas More
partial remission of temporal punishment, especially purgatorial atonement, that is still due to sin after absolution
formal statements written by Martin Luther that attacked "pardon-merchants"; nailed on the door of Wittenberg Cathedral
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
published by John Calvin in 1536 that stated that the Bible was the sole source of religious knowledge, influenced religious reformers, and said the idea of predestination
determination by God in advance, for all time, of who shall be saved and who shall be damned
a member of a Protestant group during the Reformation that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in separation of the church and state
a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the early 1600s
followers of John Calvin in France
"Index of Prohibited Books"
a list of banned books created by the Roman Catholic Church in an effort to curtail Humanist thinking that fueled Italy's Renaissance
"Society of Jesus"; a Roman Catholic order found in 1540 by St. Ignatius of Loyola
a government controlled by religious leaders
"Cuius regio, eius religio"
"Whose realm, his religion"; says that a ruler's religion should determine the religion of those he ruled
1304-1374; "Father of Renaissance Humanism"; wrote sonnets in vernacular
1500-1571; talented and gifted goldsmith and sculptor; wrote autobiography that revealed his cool ruthlessness
1469-1527; wrote "The Prince" which examined the imperfect conduct of human beings and how a rule could keep power in spite of his enemies; not concerned with what was morally right, but with was politically effective; sometimes a ruler must mislead his people and lie to his opponents
1407-1457; represented critical scholarship at its best; criticized Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, and the Vulgate
Cosimo de Medici
1389-1464; Florence reformer who placed heavier tax responsibility on wealthy citizens, built sewers and paved streets, worked for good relations, and commissioned works of art to beautify Florence
Lorenzo de Medici
r. 1469-1492; "The Magnificent"; exiled people who disagreed with him and expanded economy of Florence; patron of artists, writers, and philosophers
1452-1498; Dominican friar who became the virtual dictator of Florence by 1494; had strict control over public behavior; gave passionate sermons
1377-1446; studied and measured Ancient Roman statues, buildings, and ruins; believed beauty of building was based upon mathematical relationship of various dimensions; designed dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence
1378-1455; sculpted the pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery in Florence; took 28 years
1475-1564; lived only for art; sculpted "Pieta" and "David";
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519; painter, engineer, and architect; studied geology, chemistry, and human anatomy; painted "Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa"
1483-1520; lead painter of the High Renaissance; decorated papal apartments; master of space compassion
1593-1656; painted pictures of heroic women; "Judith Beheading Holofernes", "Caravaggio"
introduced printing press to Europe in 1454; created the 42 Line Bible
1466-1536; "Prince of the Humanists"; wrote in Greek and Latin; popular due to his wit and style; challenged aspects of Church dogma; "Praise of Folly"
Jan van Eyck
1390-1441; painted "Ghent Altarpiece"; depicts traditional religious subjects and realistic figures
1497-1543; specialized in portraits that were nearly photographic, ie: Henry VIII
1525-1569; greatest Flemish painted of 16th century; painted everyday life and landscapes; "Hunters in the Snow" is arguably the greatest landscape ever painted; "Wedding Dance" and "Peasant Wedding"
1478-1535; wrote "Utopia" which described life in an ideal society; canonized by the Roman Catholic Church as a martyr
1564-1616; most quoted author of all-time; "Romeo and Juliet", "Hamlet", "Macbeth"
1330-1384; scholar at Oxford University; criticized the Church; claimed the Bible was the sole source of religious authority
1369-1415; preacher and professor at the University of Prague; leader of the Czech religious reform movement; taught that the Bible had higher authority than the pope; excommunicated and burned at the stake as a heretic
1483-1546; brilliant lecturer obsessed with the question of salvation; believed salvation was matter between man and God; translated Bible into German; began Protestant Reformation
Pope Leo X
pope who sold indulgences from 1515-1517; excommunicated Martin Luther
1484-1531; Swiss reformer in Zurich; stressed salvation by faith alone denounced some Catholic practices; turned Zurich in a theocracy
1509-1564; published "Institutes of the Christian Religion" which stated the Bible was the sole source of religious knowledge, described predestination, and influenced many reformers
1491-1547; King of England; "Defender of the Faith" because he attacked Lutheranism; married six times; created Anglican Church
one of the wives of Henry VIII; mother of Elizabeth I;
r. 1547-1553; son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; was very sickly so had regents govern England for him
r. 1553-1558; daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon; tried to reverse English trend towards Protestantism; known as "Bloody Mary" because she persecuted Protestants
r. 1558-1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; arguably the greatest English monarch; never married; reinstated Protestantism in England
Pope Paul III
established commission to help with the Catholic reform; called Council of Trent in 1545 to define official Church doctrine
Ignatius of Loyola
established the Jesuits ("Society of Jesus") in 1540
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