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69 terms

A&P Test #3

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hyaline cartilage
provide support with flexibility and resilience; the most abundant skeletal cartilages
elastic cartilages
contain more stretchy elastic fibers and so are better able to stand up to repeated bending
fibrocartilages
highly compressible with great tensile strength
axial skeleton
forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton
consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
sesamoid bones
special type of short bone that form in a tendon
important functions of bones
support, protection, movement, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell formation, triglyceride storage
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
epiphyseal line
The cartilage present at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphyses; a remnant of the epiphyseal plate.
metaphysis
flared portion of the bone where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet
periosteum
covers the external surface of the entire bone except the joint surfaces
Sharpey's fibers
tufts of collagen fibers that extend from its fibrous layer into the bone matrix; secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
bone markings
sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves
osteogenic cells
mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum
osteoblasts
bone forming cells that secrete the bone matrix
osteoclasts
giant multinucleate cells located at sites of bone resorption
osteon
structural unit of compact bone
lamella
matrix tube; "little plate"
Haversian canal
containing small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the osteon's cells
Volkmann's canals
lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone; connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity
canaliculi
connect lacunae to each other and to the central canal
trabeculae
align precisely along lines of stress and help the bone resist stress; contain irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes interconnected by canliculi
osteoid
organic part of matrix
hydroxyapatites
mineral salts; largely calcium phosphates present as tiny, tightly packed, needle like crystals in and around collagen fibers in the extracellular matix
Wolff's Law
states that a bone grows or remodels in response to the demands placed on it
repair of a bone fracture
a hematoma forms, fibrocartilaginous callus forms, bony callus forms, bone remodeling occurs
osteomalacia
"soft bones"; includes a number of disorders in which the bones are poorly mineralized
skull
most complex bony structure; formed by cranial and facial bones
functions of the facial bones
form the framework of face, contain cavities for the special sense organs of sight taste and smell, provide openings for air and food passage, secure the teeth, anchor the facial muscle of expression
function of cranial bones
enclose and protect the fragile brain and furnish attachment sites for head and neck muscles
vertebral column
rigid supporting rod
centrum
body of vertebrae
transverse process
extends laterally from each side of the vertebral arch
atlas
C1; no body and no spinous process; say yes
axis
C2; has a body and other typical vertebral processes
sacrum
articulates superiorly with L5 and inferiorly with the coccyx; laterally, the sacrum articulates with the two hip bones to form the pelvis
coccyx
tailbone; small triangular bone
thoracic cage
bony thorax; forms a protective cage around the vital organs of the thoracic cavity, supports the shoulder girdles and upper limbs, provides attachment points for many muscles
appendicular skeleton
bones of the limbs and their girdles
pectoral girdle
consists of the clavicle anteriorly and the scapula posteriorly; attaches the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provide attachment points for many of the muscles that move upper limbs
humerus
the largest, longest bone of the upper limb; articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and with the radius and ulna at the elbow
forearm
two parallel long bones, radius and ulna; antebrachium
acetabulum
"vinegar cup"
fovea capitis
"pit of the head"
medial longitudinal arch
curves well above the ground; talus is the keystone of this arch
lateral longitudinal arch
elevates the lateral part of the foot just enough to redistribute some of the weight to the calcaneus and the head of the fifth metatarsal
transverse arch
runs obliquely from one side of the foot to the other, following the line of the joints between the tarsals and metatarsals
fontanelles
allow an infant's head to be compressed slightly during birth, and accommodate brain growth in the fetus and infant
articulations
sites where two or more bones meet
fundamental functions of joints
give skeleton mobility, hold it together, and sometimes play a protective role
synarthroses
immovable joints
amphiarthroses
slightly movable joints
diarthroses
freely movable joints
fibrous joints
bones are joined by fibrous tissue; no joint cavity is present
sutures
only between bones of the skull; allow skull to expand as the brain grows during youth
synostoses
fibrous tissue tat ossifies and the skull bones fuse into a single unit
syndesmoses
bones that connected exclusively by ligaments
gomphosis
pig in socket fibrous joint
cartilaginous joints
articulating bones that are united by cartilage; lack a joint cavity
chondrosis
"junction of cartilage"; where a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bone
symphysis
where fibrocartilage unites the bone; "growing together"
synovial joints
joints in which articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing joint cavity; freely movable diathroses
six distinguishing features of synovial joints
articular cartilage, joint cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels
bursae
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin flim of synovial fluid
tendon sheath
an elongated bursa that wraps completely around the tendon subjected to friction
origin
attachment to the immovable bone
insertion
attachment to the movable bone
gliding
one flat bone surface glides or slips over another without appreciable angulation or rotation
angular movements
increase or decrease the angle between two bones; may occur in any plane of the body and include flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction