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what is intelligence?

consists of a set of abilities required to engage in adaptive behavior that is goal-oriented in direction

What are eight theories of multiple intelligences & who proposed them?

1. linguistic/language = ability to think in multiple languages
2. logical/mathematical
3. spacial = understanding depth, angles
4. musical
5. body kinesthetic = movement/coordination
6. interpersonal
7. intrapersonal
8. naturalistic = common sense

What is triarchic theory of human intelligence & who proposed it?

- different aspects of intelligence work together
- there are 3 aspects
- proposed by sternberg

What are the 3 aspects of triarchic theory of human intelligence?

1. analytical = critical thinking, problem solving, comparing & contrasting
2. Creative = ability to think in new & innovative ways
3. Practical = ability to deal w/everyday problems of living

What are 5 characteristics of intelligence?

1. it is changeable
2. it is not fixed
3. genetics places an upper limit on our abilities
4. differences exist btw racial & ethnic groups
5. differences exist btw males & females

Males tender to be better at 4 things

1. visual spacial tasks = distance
2. motor skills involving aiming=eye/hand coordination
3. spacial temporal/hearing tasks
4. fluid reasoning = ability to see a problem & come up with a solution

females tender to be better at 4 things

1. verbal tasks = phonology (basic sounds) & semantics (meaning of words)
2. production & comprehension of complex writing/prose
3. fine motor skills = gatherers
4. perceptual speed = b/c they have been caregivers, quick at picking things up

what is phonology?

good at basic sounds

what is semantics?

good at meaning of words

what is mental age?

child's cognitive age of functioning

what is intelligence quotient (IQ)? (4)

1. developed by stern
2. related to mental age to chronological age
3. formula/IQ = MA/CA *100
4. good for early development but bad for late teens, b/c you peak cognitively at say 21 but you still chronically age, so it would drop your IQ

what is the IQ of an average child?

ex. 6 years old, mental age = 6 --> 6/6*100=100

what is the IQ of an mentally advanced child?

MA>CA yielding an IQ >100

what is the IQ of an mentally impaired child?

MA<CA yielding an IQ<100

what are deviation IQ scores? (6)

1. used to measure adult intelligence
2. based on deviation of IQ score from population avg
3. based on a normal or bell-shaped curve
4. 2/3 of population btw 85-115
5. 95% of population btw 70-130
6. 2.5% mentally challenged & 2.5% mentally advanced

Intelligence scales: Stanford-Binet is used to assess what & what 4 things does it assess?

- used to predict school performance
1. verbal reasoning=understand what you read
2. quantitative reasoning = numbers
3. figure abstract reasoning = space relationships
4. short term memory

Intelligence scales: Wechsler scales is used when & what 3 things does it assess?

- used in development research
1. verbal component=vocabulary & comprehension
2. performance component= #'s, picture completion
3. Overall score = combining & averaging verbal & performance

Mental retardation is diagnosed if what 3 things are present?

1. intellectual functioning is <70 (IQ <70)
2. significant disabilities in 2 or more adaptive skills (ADLs)
3. age of onset is <18

What are the four levels/degrees of impairment?

1. mild
2. moderate
3. severe
4. profound

What are the four characteristics of mild impairment?

1. 50-70 IQ
2. 85% of challenged individuals
3. 2% of the 2.5% on the bell curve
4. they can be educated

What are the three characteristics of moderate impairment?

1. 35-50 IQ
2. 10% of challenged individuals
3. 0.1% of the 2.5% on the bell curve

What are the two characteristics of severe impairment?

1. 20-35 IQ
2. 4% of challenged individuals

What are the two characteristics of profound impairment?

1. <20 IQ
2. <2% of challenged individuals

What the five adaptive life skill of mildly impaired individuals?

1. 6th grade level of education
2. social & vocational skills (they can do a job, ex. secretarial)
3. higher end of problem solving
4. independent living
5. can do ADLs

What the six adaptive life skill of moderately impaired individuals?

1. they are trainable (not educatable)
2. 4th grade level
3. hold a job = must be routine/unskilled- great employee
4. must have supervision & structure
5. group home living
6. they can do ADLs, but they need reminding

What the seven adaptive life skill of severely impaired individuals?

1. cannot be educated
2. may talk or communicate in some manner
3. no benefit from training, no job
4. 24/7 care. cannot live alone
5. very controlled environment, routines
6. simple ADLs - try to comb hair
7. problems with bathing, toileting

What the four adaptive life skill of profoundly impaired individuals?

1. limited motor development - Ex. wheelchair w/being strapped in. need assistance w/all movement
2. little to no speech
3. unresponsive to training - including ADLs
4. 24/7 supervision

What is autism (5)?

1. 4 to 5 times more common in males versus females
2. if female, then more severe in nature (lower IQ)
3. in 2000 2-5 case per 10,000; in 2009=1 in 30, in 2011=1 in 150
4. 25% of individuals develop seizure disorders
5. associated medical conditions include =
a. phenylketonuria
b. congenital rubella
c. fragile x syndrome

What are the five essential features for diagnosis of autism?

1. early onset
2. social dysfunction
3. communication dysfunction
4. intellectual deficits
5. unusual behaviors

What are four possible causes of autism?

1. genetics
2. obesity in pregnant moms
3. vaccines = how they are preserved (mercury) & what is the timing of giving vaccines
4. have we been exposed to something that is changing the genetic code

What is early onset autism? (2)

1. peak age of onset is before 2 1/2 years of age
2. if it has not developed by age 5 it probably never will

What is social dysfunction & what are six characteristics?

- inability to form personal relationships
1. no eye contact
2. don't engage the human face
3. fixed stare
4. don't like to be held
5. engage in solitary play/uncooperative play
6. dont' have imaginary or fantasy play

What is communication dysfunction? (2)

1. normal patterns of babbling do not develop
2. do not show age appropriate gesturing skills & verbal imitation skills (pre language skills)

If language does develop in communication dysfunction it is characterized by these five things?

1. poor vocabulary
2. unusual speech content = don't make sense for the situation
3. simple speech structures
4. monotone quality to voice
5. inability to comprehend the concept of "opposites"

What is echolatic speech?

repeat/parrot speech

What is pronoun reversals

instead of "I did this" it is "you did this"

Autism: Intelligence (3)

1. associated with mental retardation
2. IQ ranging between 52-85
3. idiot savant or splinter skills (only found in 10-20% of autistic individuals

What is idiot savant or splinter skills?

isolated skills of superior performance
Ex. math computation, art abilities music abilities, calculating exact calendar dates

What are two types of unusual behaviors in autistic individuals?

1. sterotypic behaviors = arm flapping, clapping, rocking, tapping, spinning (themselves & objects)
2. self-injurious behaviors = head banging, biting, face slapping (to themselves or to others)

What are six interventions for autism?

1. electro convulsive therapy (no longer used)
2. dietary changes
3. drug treatments
4. pyschoanalytic/dynamic
5. behavoir modification = some success, positive/negative reinforcement
6. incorporate parents into program treatment

What is Down's Syndrome? (7)

1. first described by Esquirol in 1838
2. 1860 named Mongolian Idiocy by Langdon Down
3. Known as Down's Syndrome or Trisomy 21
4. 95% have extra chromosome 21
5. one of the most frequent cases of intellectual disability
6. 1 in 800 live births
7. increases with mother's age >45--> 1 in 50

What are five general characteristics of Down's Syndrome?

1. virtually all have intellectual disabilities
2. 25-50 IQ
3. some 70 IQ
4. most common cause of challenge in the moderate range
5. limited academic range = 4th grade level

Physical characteristics of Down's syndrome (general)? (2)

1. 50 physical clinical features can be identified at birth (visually seen)
2. not all are expressed equally or appear in everyone

What are eight common characteristics of Down's Syndrome?

1. shorter & stockier
2. unusually rounded head
3. small nose
4. enlarge tongue (over developed)
5. wider hands/feet with shorter fingers/toes
6. visual impairments
7. poor muscle tone & coordination
8. simian crease (only one crease across the palm)

Three other conditions found in people with Down's Syndrome

1. congenital heart defects
2. hypothyroidism
3. leukemia in later adulthood

What is the life expectancy in someone with Down's Syndrome? (2)

1. 1930 = 9 years (medical, institutions)
2. Today > 70 years = death usually due to care issues

Five development strategies for individual's with Down's Syndrome

1. Normalization = as normal as possible in school & home
2. Social skill training = very affectionate/friendly --> teach what is proper
3. personal self control = appropriate time & place for things
4. main-streaming = regular classroom setting
5. Taught academic & life skills to the best of their abilities

What are four communication (language) systems that carry messages?

1. natural language = learn it when little
2. artificial language
3. visual communication
4. non-verbal communication

What is natural language?

1. complex system for transmitting specific meanings through words
2. Two key components = Verbal comprehension & verbal fluency
3. Four main areas = phonology, semantics, grammar, pragmatics

What are the two key components of natural language?

1. Verbal comprehension
2. verbal fluency

What is verbal comprehension?

ability to understand written or spoken language

what is verbal fluency?

ability to produce language with ease

What is phonology?

1. examines how BASIC SOUNDS are put together to form words & how the intonation patterns of phrases & sentences are determined

What is phoneme? (3)

1. shortest speech unit in which a change produces an alteration in meaning
2. first phoneme between "bat" and "cat"
3. middle phoneme between "bat" and "bit"

What is semantics?

the study of word meanings

What is denotation?

strict dictionary definition of a word

what is connotation?

emotional overtone to a word or some other non-explicit meaning of a word. not in the dictionary

What is grammar?

study of sentence structure

what is grammar morphology? (3)

1. rules for forming words from sounds
2. describes the smallest units of meaning that modify the basic meanings of words
3. also includes rules for plurals, past tenses, prefixes, and suffixes

What is grammar syntax? (3)

1. rules for forming sentences
2. specific ways in which individual words are combines in sentences
3. application of syntactic rules provides the greatest opportunity for linguistic creativity

What is pragmatics? (2)

- the rules governing the use of language in context by real speakers & listeners int real situations
- shakespeare --> texts

What is artificial language?

- Examples include mathematical equations, musical notations & computer programs that use agreed-upon systems of symbols, signs, formulas
Ex. periodic table, binary symbols, music, sign language

What is visual communication? (2)

1. pictures & diagrams that convey ideas and/or feelings
2. Universal signs: skull/cross bones = poison, peace = different symbols

What are four nonverbal communications?

1. paralanguage = aspects of language other than words Ex. how loud you speak, tone/pitch, hesitation
2. body gestures = how you sit, stand, carry yourself
3. physical distance = how far or how close you stand to a person
4. Eye contact = sign of respect, strength

What is paralanguage?

aspects of language other than words Ex. how loud you speak, tone/pitch, hesitation

What are five factors related to distance in nonverbal communication?

1. relationship of individuals
2. status = older, respect issue
3. authority figures
4. ethnic & cultural differences
5. Sex differences

Furtherest to closest in nonverbal communication distance geographic

North America
Northern Europe
southern/eastern europe
middle east
south america

Furtherest to closest in nonverbal communication distance sex differences

Two men
Two women
Man & woman

What is Child-directed speech (CDS)? (5)

1. also referred to as "baby talk" = adult talk, just presented differently
2. most adults & children do it
3. may well be universal
4. documented in many languages & cultures
5. researchers believe that CDS helps children learn their native language or at least pick it up faster

What are six characteristics of CDS?

1. speak slowly
2. higher pitched voice with exaggerated ups & downs
3. exaggerating vowel sounds
4. simple speech
5. short words & sentences
6. repetition

CDS is believed to teach children 7 things

1. how to carry on a conversation
2. how to turn take in conversation = back & forth
3. who to introduce a topic
4. who to comment on or add to a topic
5. how to use new words
6. how to structure phrases
7. who to put ideas into language

what is holophrases? (2)

1. 12-18 months
2. the expression of a whole

Language development: 6 months

responds to his name

Language development: 12 months

uses one or more words with meaning (this may be a fragment of a word)

Language development: 18 months

vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns

Language development: 24 months

my and mine are beginning to emerge

Language development: 36 months

use pronouns I, you, me correctly

Language development: 60 months (3)

1. knows common opposites = big/little, hard/soft
2. can count to ten
3. should have simple time concepts = morning, afternoon, night, day, later, after, while tomorrow, yesterday, today

Language development: 7 years (2)

1. should be able to tell time to quarter hour
2. should be able to do simple reading & to write or print many words

Language development: 8 years (2)

1. can relate rather involved accounts of events, many of which occurred at some time in the past
2. can carry on conversation at rather adult level

what is stuttering?

- is speech that has more dysfluencies than is considered average

what is fluent speech?

smooth, forward moving, effortless with no hesitation

What is dysfluent speech?

any break in the flow of speech

What are five characteristics of stuttering?

1. can be accompanied by tension or anxiety
2. sound or syllable repetition
3. prolongation = unnatural stretching out of the sound
4. blocks = sound gets stuck & cannot come out
5. facial grimacing or ticks

What are four causes of stuttering?

1. genetic basis
2. disorder of the timing of the moving of the speech muscles (speech therapy may work)
3. defect in the auditory feedback --> speech easy device many help this (works like another person is talking along with them)
4. there is a lack of cerebral dominance for language function, the right side is dominant vs. the left side

What are six facts about stuttering?

1. more often in males than females, 3:1 ratio
2. 3 million Americans have profound stuttering
3. not a sign of emotional or mental disorder
4. can be source of stress
5. normal or above normal intelligence
6. it is not a learned behavior

Six pointers for engaging in a conversation with a stutter

1. focus on what they are saying, not how they are saying it
2. speak slower yourself
3. you are more relaxed & attentive
4. don't look away if they get stuck on a word
5. don't interrupt or finish their sentence
6. don't give them advice

What is dyslexia?

- is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read

Dyslexia general (3)

1. individual typically read at level significantly lower than expected for intelligence
2. difficulty reading, writing & spelling in their native language
3. prognosis is good if detected early

What are eight preschool warning signs for dyslexia?

1. delayed speech
2. a lack of dominant handiness
3. difficulty in learning names of letters or sounds in the alphabet
4. problem with tying their shoes
5. child with a lot of allergies
6. confusion with directions (ex. knowing left & right)
7. inability to rhyme by age four
8. mixing up sounds Ex. Animal vs. amimal, spaghetti vs. bisegetti

Dyslexia: Five reading difficulties

1. visibly tired after reading for a short time
2. slow, labored reading, hard time reading words in singular
3. ignore punctuation
4. frequently reverse, invert or transpose letters
5. omit or change suffixes on words. Ex. I need to go to the bank ---> I needed to go to the bank

Dyslexia: Three spelling difficulties

1. transposing letters = spelling errors
2. signs of spelling uncertain (ex. a lot of erase marks)
3. they misspell when copying from the board

Dyslexia: five handwriting difficulties

1. illegible handwriting
2. unusual pencil grip
3. hold pencil almost at lead (lower than normal) with a tight grip
4. difficulty getting letters to sit on a horizontal line
5. unusual spacial organization of the page

what are 3 types of temperaments in infants?

1. easy temperament = even tempered, typically content or happy
2. difficult temperament = active, irritable & irregular in habits
3. slow-to-warm up temperament = relatively inactive, somewhat moody & moderately regular in daily schedules

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