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One way movement of blood throughout a closed bodily system. Oxygen and nutrients to the blood
closes when right ventricle pumps in order to prevent back flow into the right atrium
pulmonary semilunar valve
Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. When right ventricle has emptied, this valve closes in order to prevent back flow into the right ventricle.
Located between the left ventricle and the aorta. Prevents return of aortic blood into left ventricle
coarctation of the aotra
a narrow fibrous contristion in the descending thoracic aotra (an extracardiac abnormanilty)
Discussion of coronary heart disease
Includes myocardial blood supply
a)right and left coronary arteries.
b)circumflex coronary artery
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus
a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
medical instrument that records electric currents associated with contractions of the heart
an X-ray machine that combines an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation
using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram)
Function of blood
Blood is the chief means for transporting vital elements within the body, thus important for various body functions:
Blood carries hormones and other chemical substances that regulate the function of organs.
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
A general condition in which the blood is lacking either in its normal number of RBC's or in its overall quality
Involves the destruction of RBC's within the vascular system. Example: sickle cell anemia- an inherited disorder
In this disease there is a trendous increase in WBC's. Normal is 5,000 to 10,000 cells/cu mm. In leukemia 30,000 to 50,000 cells may be present
Include a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal bleeding tendency. These are cause by a breakdown in the clotting mechanism. Example: Hemophilia-Blood fails to clot
Large blood vessels, Thick and very elastic. Has 3 layers. Carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart
Thin blood vessels, less elastic than an artery. Has 3 layers. Carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart
either of two major arteries of the neck and head. There is a right and a left artery.
Below the elbow and extending down the forearm around the wrist and into the palm. There is a right and a left artery.
Large veins on right and a left side of the neck that return blood to the heart from the head and neck.
Superior vena cava
Largest vein in the body. They meet and empty into the right atrium of the heart.
There is a right and a left femoral vein in the the this returning blood from the thigh to the heart.
The largest, greatest, longest vein, in back of ankle to the top of the thigh. the lesser vein back of ankle behind the knee.
inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
Diagnosis involving vessels
Ultrasound - Doppler hears the pluse
Phleb=vein, Phlebothrombosis - in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus)
Slowness of Normal flow. Venostasis inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces
(surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)
inside body into tissues and cavities, vomits blood, coughs up blood, loss of conciousness signal this. Little can be done, keep warm, NO FLUIDS
A pressure point is a location at which a main artery supplying a particular body area lies near the skin surface and over a bone
blood in the chest or pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
Loss of control of the nervous system. Blood vessels can not change size in response to stimuli and remain widely dilated.
Psychogenic shock (TQ)
simple fainting - Syncope
Caused by - Not getting enough oxygen to the head
Treatment - Put head down
Anaphylactic shock (TQ)
Severe allergic reaction
Caused by 4 I's - Insect
Respiratory shock (TQ)
Caused by insuffient oxygen in the blood
***It is NOT caused by impairment of circulation
Blood pressure (TQ)
(BP) refers to the force exited by the blog against the walls of the blood vessels as it flows through them.
Arterial Blood Pressure depends upon
1.Force of heart beat (cardiac output)
2. Volume of blood in the circulatory system
10-12 Pints Of Blood
3. Resistance in the blood vessels
a.Vasoconstriction - BV Narrow
b. Vasodilation - BV Enlarge
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood
indirect use of arterial bp, palpate or feel the pulse as the press applied externally to an artery is reduced
a method of measuring blood pressure by listening for the appearance and disappearance of Korotkoff sounds within the body
Primary Hypertension Theories of Causation
1. Vasoconstrictor impulses -
a. Hormonal Imbalance
b. Psychogenic Factors
Normal Respiratory Rates
Birth 40-60 breaths/minute
Adult 16-20 breaths/minute
Inspiration and expiration as (1) breath
REMEBER TO COUNT FOR 1 FULL MINUTE
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (C.O.P.D.)
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Those are diseases that obstruct the pathway of normal ventilation
Over expansion of the lungs. Alveoli become distended. Elasticity of the alveoli is destroyed.
1-Allergic (Extrinsic) - Pollen, house dust, cats, etc.
i.e.. heart failure, inflammation of lung
Means an airless - collapsed lung
1. External pressure on the lung due to fluid
2. Obstruction of the bronchus
collection of air in the pleural cavity lung collapses due to loss of negative pressure
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea, through the neck, and a tube inserted so as to make an artificial opening in order to assist breathing
Measures culture and sensitivity of sputum, collect specimen early in the AM before breakfast
birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
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