One way movement of blood throughout a closed bodily system. Oxygen and nutrients to the blood
outermost layer of the heart
inner lining of the heart
the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities
partition between right and left atrium (upper)
divides the left ventricle from the right ventricle (lower)
Recieves unoxygenated venous blood returning from body via veins. (svc & ivc)
Pump unoxygenated venous blood to the lungs.
Recieves blood high in oxygen content as it returns from the lungs.
Has the thickest wall, pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
Blood flow between the chambers is regulated by a system of one way valves
closes when right ventricle pumps in order to prevent back flow into the right atrium
pulmonary semilunar valve
Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. When right ventricle has emptied, this valve closes in order to prevent back flow into the right ventricle.
prevents blood from returning to the left atrium
Located between the left ventricle and the aorta. Prevents return of aortic blood into left ventricle
carries blood to and from the lungs
carries blood to and from the rest of the body
active contraction phase
sinoatrial node (SA node)
pacemaker of the heart
Bundle of his
causes ventricle to contract
inflammation of the heart lining
inflammation of heart muscle
Inflammation of heart surface
Congenital heart diseases
Ventricular septal defects
A hole in the interventricular septum
Atrial septal defects
opening between the right and left atria
coarctation of the aotra
a narrow fibrous contristion in the descending thoracic aotra (an extracardiac abnormanilty)
Discussion of coronary heart disease
Includes myocardial blood supply
a)right and left coronary arteries.
b)circumflex coronary artery
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
hardening of the arteries
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus
Dengenerative heart disease
due to deterioration of tissure such as valves and muscle
abnormal heart sounds
listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
incomplete closure of a valve which permits regurgitation of the blood
a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
medical instrument that records electric currents associated with contractions of the heart
an X-ray machine that combines an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation
using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram)
Function of blood
Blood is the chief means for transporting vital elements within the body, thus important for various body functions:
Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carries carbon dioxide
Blood carries food substances from intestines to tissues
Blood carries waster products from cells to organs for excretion
Blood carries defesnsice cells
Blood carries hormones and other chemical substances that regulate the function of organs.
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
(Red Blood Cells) Carry oxygen
(White blood cells) Serves as defense mechanism of the body
(thrombocytes) Bring about the process of clotting
A general condition in which the blood is lacking either in its normal number of RBC's or in its overall quality
Blood Loss Anemias
Anemia due to either acute or chronic blood loss
Involves the destruction of RBC's within the vascular system. Example: sickle cell anemia- an inherited disorder
Anemias with decreased RBC production
Example: Bone marrow fails to form enought RBC's
In this disease there is a trendous increase in WBC's. Normal is 5,000 to 10,000 cells/cu mm. In leukemia 30,000 to 50,000 cells may be present
Include a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal bleeding tendency. These are cause by a breakdown in the clotting mechanism. Example: Hemophilia-Blood fails to clot
Large blood vessels, Thick and very elastic. Has 3 layers. Carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart
Thin blood vessels, less elastic than an artery. Has 3 layers. Carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart
small arteries or branches of arteries.
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)
either of two major arteries of the neck and head. There is a right and a left artery.
Largest SINGLE artery in the body, supplies the body with oxygen-rich blood
the main artery of the upper arm. There is a right and a left artery.
Below the elbow and extending down the forearm around the wrist and into the palm. There is a right and a left artery.
the chief artery of the thigh. There is a right and a left artery.
Large veins on right and a left side of the neck that return blood to the heart from the head and neck.
Superior vena cava
Largest vein in the body. They meet and empty into the right atrium of the heart.
There is a right and a left femoral vein in the the this returning blood from the thigh to the heart.
The largest, greatest, longest vein, in back of ankle to the top of the thigh. the lesser vein back of ankle behind the knee.
inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
Tunica Adentitia (Connective Tissue)
Outer Most Coat=Layer
Tunica Intima (Endothelium)
Inner most Coat=Layer
Tunica Media (Involuntary Muscle)
Middle MUSCLE Coat=Layer
the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart
pulse located at the temples
pulse located in the neck
pulse taken with a stethoscope and near the apex of the heart (not a pulse)
pulse of the radial artery (felt in the wrist)
pulse of the femoral artery (felt in the groin)
PULSE LOCATED BEHIND THE KNEE
pulse located on top of the foot (surface)
Normal pulse for women
Normal pulse for adult men
Normal pulse for children
Normal pulse for Elderly
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
abnormally slow heartbeat (below 60 beats per minute)
Pules rate that has occasional skipped beats
Not Regular AKA Arrhythmia. Variation in force and frequency
weak force with each beat (very light)
Diagnosis involving vessels
Ultrasound - Doppler hears the pluse
insturment for examing the eye
Phleb=vein, Phlebothrombosis - in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus)
(thrombi) Stationary blood clot
(emboli ) Moving blood clot
Slowness of Normal flow. Venostasis inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces
prevent blood clot formation; heparin
(surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)
surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
Change in drainage, check posterior to the wound
inside body into tissues and cavities, vomits blood, coughs up blood, loss of conciousness signal this. Little can be done, keep warm, NO FLUIDS
Bleeding - Steady, Heavy flow. Deep Red/Marron Color (Deoxygenated
Spurting ANd Bright Red Color (Oxygenated)
Bleeding - Slow, oozing flow, Reddish Brown Color.
A pressure point is a location at which a main artery supplying a particular body area lies near the skin surface and over a bone
Pressure Points - Temporal or scalp
pressure on temporal artery
Pressure Points -Lower face
Pressure on the facial artery
Pressure Points - Neck
Pressure on the carotid artery
Pressure Points -Shoulder or upper arm, chest wall and armpit
Pressure on the subclaivian artery
Pressure Points - Mid-upper arm and elbow
Pressure on the brachial artery
Pressure Points - Leg
Pressure on the femoral artery
bleeding from the nose
the presence of blood in the urine
coughing up blood or Expectoration
blood in the chest or pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
Rest or stop bleeding i.e.. by suturing or clamp
It is a state of collapse resulting from circulatory failure.
shock resulting from blood loss
caused by sudden injury
Loss of control of the nervous system. Blood vessels can not change size in response to stimuli and remain widely dilated.
Psychogenic shock (TQ)
simple fainting - Syncope
Caused by - Not getting enough oxygen to the head
Treatment - Put head down
shock caused by cardiac arrest
Vessels dilate and plasma is lost through their walls.
loss of body fluids or a change in body chemistry
Anaphylactic shock (TQ)
Severe allergic reaction
Caused by 4 I's - Insect
Following surgery, as in traumatic shock
Respiratory shock (TQ)
Caused by insuffient oxygen in the blood
***It is NOT caused by impairment of circulation
a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body
Eyes (symptoms of shock)
Dull...Pupils may be dilated,
Skin (symptoms of shock)
Pale..Cold and Clammy..Cyanotic
Respirations (symptoms of shock)
Shallow irregular labored
Pulse (symptoms of shock)
Blood pressure (symptoms of shock)
Patient may experience
Blood pressure (TQ)
(BP) refers to the force exited by the blog against the walls of the blood vessels as it flows through them.
Blood pressure gradient
Refers to the difference in pressure in arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arterial Blood Pressure depends upon
1.Force of heart beat (cardiac output)
2. Volume of blood in the circulatory system
10-12 Pints Of Blood
3. Resistance in the blood vessels
a.Vasoconstriction - BV Narrow
b. Vasodilation - BV Enlarge
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood
An instrument used to record arterial BP
indirect use of arterial bp, palpate or feel the pulse as the press applied externally to an artery is reduced
a method of measuring blood pressure by listening for the appearance and disappearance of Korotkoff sounds within the body
Vasoconstrictor impulses is thought to be the theory of hypertension.
Most common type. Females are more likely to develop
Primary Hypertension Theories of Causation
1. Vasoconstrictor impulses -
a. Hormonal Imbalance
b. Psychogenic Factors
Cause of high BP can be traced to a deferent disease
Normal Respiratory Rates
Birth 40-60 breaths/minute
Adult 16-20 breaths/minute
Inspiration and expiration as (1) breath
REMEBER TO COUNT FOR 1 FULL MINUTE
Rapid breathing but rate is in excess of 24 cycles/min
Abnormally slow breathing
Breathing greatly reduced in depth.
difficult breathing painful or labored breathing
breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect
Cessation of respiration - Eventually it will stop.
A condition that means lack of oxygen -
inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (C.O.P.D.)
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Those are diseases that obstruct the pathway of normal ventilation
Over expansion of the lungs. Alveoli become distended. Elasticity of the alveoli is destroyed.
1-Allergic (Extrinsic) - Pollen, house dust, cats, etc.
i.e.. heart failure, inflammation of lung
Narrowing of the bronchial tubes
Means an airless - collapsed lung
1. External pressure on the lung due to fluid
2. Obstruction of the bronchus
collection of air in the pleural cavity lung collapses due to loss of negative pressure
collection of air in the pleural cavity and collapses of a lung
jtapenig at both ends; spindle - shaped
Pain in the chest
surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
Removal of a segment of a lung
SURGICAL PUNCTURE OF THE LUNG
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
incision into the chest
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea, through the neck, and a tube inserted so as to make an artificial opening in order to assist breathing
May demonstrate lesions in the chest which are asymptomatic.
record of the bronchus
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material
Measures culture and sensitivity of sputum, collect specimen early in the AM before breakfast
a complex of concurrent things
Inflammation of a sweat gland
pain in the chest caused by inflammation of the muscles between the ribs
birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
surgical incision into the abdominal wall
loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers
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