198 terms

Module 3- Terms

Ahs 101
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circulation
One way movement of blood throughout a closed bodily system. Oxygen and nutrients to the blood
epicardium
outermost layer of the heart
endocardium
inner lining of the heart
myocardium
the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
septum
a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities
interatrial septum
partition between right and left atrium (upper)
interventrical septum
divides the left ventricle from the right ventricle (lower)
right atrium
Recieves unoxygenated venous blood returning from body via veins. (svc & ivc)
right ventricle
Pump unoxygenated venous blood to the lungs.
Left atrium
Recieves blood high in oxygen content as it returns from the lungs.
Left ventricle
Has the thickest wall, pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
valves
Blood flow between the chambers is regulated by a system of one way valves
tricuspid valves
closes when right ventricle pumps in order to prevent back flow into the right atrium
pulmonary semilunar valve
Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. When right ventricle has emptied, this valve closes in order to prevent back flow into the right ventricle.
Mitral valve
prevents blood from returning to the left atrium
aortic semilunar
Located between the left ventricle and the aorta. Prevents return of aortic blood into left ventricle
pulmonary circuit
carries blood to and from the lungs
systemic circuit
carries blood to and from the rest of the body
systole
active contraction phase
diastole
resting period
sinoatrial node (SA node)
pacemaker of the heart
Atrioventricular Node
AV node
Bundle of his
intraventricular septum
Purkinje fibers
causes ventricle to contract
endocarditis
inflammation of the heart lining
myocarditis
inflammation of heart muscle
pericarditis
Inflammation of heart surface
Congenital heart diseases
Developmental abnormalities
Ventricular septal defects
A hole in the interventricular septum
Atrial septal defects
opening between the right and left atria
coarctation of the aotra
a narrow fibrous contristion in the descending thoracic aotra (an extracardiac abnormanilty)
Discussion of coronary heart disease
Includes myocardial blood supply
a)right and left coronary arteries.
b)circumflex coronary artery
occlusion
blockage
angina pectoris
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
atherosclerosis
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
coronary thrombosis
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus
myocardial infarction
heart attack
Dengenerative heart disease
due to deterioration of tissure such as valves and muscle
murmurs
abnormal heart sounds
auscultation
listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
valvular insufficiency
incomplete closure of a valve which permits regurgitation of the blood
valvular stenosis
a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
stethoscope
a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
electrocardiograph
medical instrument that records electric currents associated with contractions of the heart
fluoroscope
an X-ray machine that combines an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation
ultrasound
using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram)
various drugs
treatment
surgery
treatment
Function of blood
Blood is the chief means for transporting vital elements within the body, thus important for various body functions:
Respiration
Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carries carbon dioxide
Nutrition
Blood carries food substances from intestines to tissues
Excretion
Blood carries waster products from cells to organs for excretion
Protection
Blood carries defesnsice cells
Regulation
Blood carries hormones and other chemical substances that regulate the function of organs.
Plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
Erythrocytes
(Red Blood Cells) Carry oxygen
Leukocytes
(White blood cells) Serves as defense mechanism of the body
Platelets
(thrombocytes) Bring about the process of clotting
Anemias
A general condition in which the blood is lacking either in its normal number of RBC's or in its overall quality
Blood Loss Anemias
Anemia due to either acute or chronic blood loss
Hemolytic Anemias
Involves the destruction of RBC's within the vascular system. Example: sickle cell anemia- an inherited disorder
Anemias with decreased RBC production
Example: Bone marrow fails to form enought RBC's
Leukemia
In this disease there is a trendous increase in WBC's. Normal is 5,000 to 10,000 cells/cu mm. In leukemia 30,000 to 50,000 cells may be present
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Include a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal bleeding tendency. These are cause by a breakdown in the clotting mechanism. Example: Hemophilia-Blood fails to clot
Arteries
Large blood vessels, Thick and very elastic. Has 3 layers. Carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart
Veins
Thin blood vessels, less elastic than an artery. Has 3 layers. Carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart
Arterioles
small arteries or branches of arteries.
venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
vasoconstriction
decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
Vasodilation
dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)
carotid artery
either of two major arteries of the neck and head. There is a right and a left artery.
aorta artery
Largest SINGLE artery in the body, supplies the body with oxygen-rich blood
brachial artery
the main artery of the upper arm. There is a right and a left artery.
radial artery
Below the elbow and extending down the forearm around the wrist and into the palm. There is a right and a left artery.
femoral artery
the chief artery of the thigh. There is a right and a left artery.
Jugular Vein
Large veins on right and a left side of the neck that return blood to the heart from the head and neck.
Superior vena cava
Largest vein in the body. They meet and empty into the right atrium of the heart.
Femoral vein
There is a right and a left femoral vein in the the this returning blood from the thigh to the heart.
Saphenous vein
The largest, greatest, longest vein, in back of ankle to the top of the thigh. the lesser vein back of ankle behind the knee.
inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
Tunica Adentitia (Connective Tissue)
Outer Most Coat=Layer
Tunica Intima (Endothelium)
Inner most Coat=Layer
Tunica Media (Involuntary Muscle)
Middle MUSCLE Coat=Layer
Pulse
the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart
temporal pulse
pulse located at the temples
Carotid pulse
pulse located in the neck
Apical pulse
pulse taken with a stethoscope and near the apex of the heart (not a pulse)
Radial pulse
pulse of the radial artery (felt in the wrist)
Femoral pulse
pulse of the femoral artery (felt in the groin)
Popliteal pulse
PULSE LOCATED BEHIND THE KNEE
Pedal pulse
pulse located on top of the foot (surface)
Normal pulse for women
(72-80)
Normal pulse for adult men
(62-72)
Normal pulse for children
(100-140)
Normal pulse for Elderly
(65)
Tachycardia
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
bradycardia
abnormally slow heartbeat (below 60 beats per minute)
intermittent
Pules rate that has occasional skipped beats
irregular
Not Regular AKA Arrhythmia. Variation in force and frequency
thready
weak force with each beat (very light)
Diagnosis involving vessels
Arteriography
Pulse
Ultrasound - Doppler hears the pluse
Direct Inspection
Ophthalmoscope
opthalmoscope
insturment for examing the eye
thrombophlebitis
Phleb=vein, Phlebothrombosis - in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus)
thrombus
(thrombi) Stationary blood clot
Embolus
(emboli ) Moving blood clot
stasis
Slowness of Normal flow. Venostasis inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces
Anticoagulant drugs
prevent blood clot formation; heparin
ligation
(surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)
embolectomy
surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
hemorrhage
flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
external hemorrhage
Change in drainage, check posterior to the wound
Internal hemorrhage
inside body into tissues and cavities, vomits blood, coughs up blood, loss of conciousness signal this. Little can be done, keep warm, NO FLUIDS
venous hemorrhage
Bleeding - Steady, Heavy flow. Deep Red/Marron Color (Deoxygenated
arterial hemorrhage
Spurting ANd Bright Red Color (Oxygenated)
capillary hemorrhage
Bleeding - Slow, oozing flow, Reddish Brown Color.
Pressure points
A pressure point is a location at which a main artery supplying a particular body area lies near the skin surface and over a bone
Pressure Points - Temporal or scalp
pressure on temporal artery
Pressure Points -Lower face
Pressure on the facial artery
Pressure Points - Neck
Pressure on the carotid artery
Pressure Points -Shoulder or upper arm, chest wall and armpit
Pressure on the subclaivian artery
Pressure Points - Mid-upper arm and elbow
Pressure on the brachial artery
Pressure Points - Leg
Pressure on the femoral artery
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Hematemesis
vomiting blood
Hematuria
the presence of blood in the urine
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood or Expectoration
Hemothorax
blood in the chest or pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
Hemostatic
Rest or stop bleeding i.e.. by suturing or clamp
Shock
It is a state of collapse resulting from circulatory failure.
Hemorrhagic shock
shock resulting from blood loss
Traumatic shock
caused by sudden injury
Neurogenic shock
Loss of control of the nervous system. Blood vessels can not change size in response to stimuli and remain widely dilated.
Psychogenic shock (TQ)
simple fainting - Syncope
Caused by - Not getting enough oxygen to the head
Treatment - Put head down
Cardiogenic shock
shock caused by cardiac arrest
Septic shock
Severe infection.
Vessels dilate and plasma is lost through their walls.
Metabolic shock
loss of body fluids or a change in body chemistry
Anaphylactic shock (TQ)
Severe allergic reaction
Caused by 4 I's - Insect
- Injection
- Ingested
- Inhale
Surgical shock
Following surgery, as in traumatic shock
Respiratory shock (TQ)
Caused by insuffient oxygen in the blood
***It is NOT caused by impairment of circulation
Hypoglycemia shock
low bloodsugar
Electric shock
a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body
Eyes (symptoms of shock)
Dull...Pupils may be dilated,
Skin (symptoms of shock)
Pale..Cold and Clammy..Cyanotic
Respirations (symptoms of shock)
Shallow irregular labored
Pulse (symptoms of shock)
Rapid weak
Blood pressure (symptoms of shock)
Low
Patient may experience
-nausea -vomiting
-collapse
-anxiety.
-thirsty
Blood pressure (TQ)
(BP) refers to the force exited by the blog against the walls of the blood vessels as it flows through them.
Blood pressure gradient
Refers to the difference in pressure in arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arterial Blood Pressure depends upon
1.Force of heart beat (cardiac output)
2. Volume of blood in the circulatory system
10-12 Pints Of Blood
3. Resistance in the blood vessels
a.Vasoconstriction - BV Narrow
b. Vasodilation - BV Enlarge
systolic pressure
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
Diastolic Pressure
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood
sphygmomanometer
An instrument used to record arterial BP
Palpatory method
indirect use of arterial bp, palpate or feel the pulse as the press applied externally to an artery is reduced
auscultatory method
a method of measuring blood pressure by listening for the appearance and disappearance of Korotkoff sounds within the body
Hypertension
Vasoconstrictor impulses is thought to be the theory of hypertension.
Primary Hypertension
Most common type. Females are more likely to develop
Primary Hypertension Theories of Causation
1. Vasoconstrictor impulses -
a. Hormonal Imbalance
b. Psychogenic Factors
2. Inherited
3. Obesity
4. Diet
Secondary Hypertension
Cause of high BP can be traced to a deferent disease
Eupnea
normal breathing
Normal Respiratory Rates
Birth 40-60 breaths/minute
Adult 16-20 breaths/minute
Inspiration and expiration as (1) breath
REMEBER TO COUNT FOR 1 FULL MINUTE
tachypnea
Rapid breathing but rate is in excess of 24 cycles/min
bradypnea
Abnormally slow breathing
hypopnea
Breathing greatly reduced in depth.
dyspnea
difficult breathing painful or labored breathing
orthopnea
breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect
apnea
Cessation of respiration - Eventually it will stop.
anoxia
A condition that means lack of oxygen -
AKA- Hypoxia
Bronchitis
inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (C.O.P.D.)
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
(C.O.L.D)
Those are diseases that obstruct the pathway of normal ventilation
Emphysema
Over expansion of the lungs. Alveoli become distended. Elasticity of the alveoli is destroyed.
Asthma
Types :
1-Allergic (Extrinsic) - Pollen, house dust, cats, etc.
2-Non-Allergic (Intrinsic)
i.e.. heart failure, inflammation of lung
Bronchostenosis
Narrowing of the bronchial tubes
Atelectasis
Means an airless - collapsed lung
Causes:
1. External pressure on the lung due to fluid
2. Obstruction of the bronchus
pneumothorax
collection of air in the pleural cavity lung collapses due to loss of negative pressure
Hemothorax
collection of air in the pleural cavity and collapses of a lung
fusiform
jtapenig at both ends; spindle - shaped
Thoracodynia
Pain in the chest
Pneumonectomy
surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
Lobectomy
surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
Segmental Resection
Removal of a segment of a lung
Pneumocentesis
SURGICAL PUNCTURE OF THE LUNG
Thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
Thoracotomy
incision into the chest
Thracheotomy
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea, through the neck, and a tube inserted so as to make an artificial opening in order to assist breathing
Chest X-ray
May demonstrate lesions in the chest which are asymptomatic.
Bronchogram
record of the bronchus
Mediastinoscopy
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
Pulmonary Angiography
x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material
Sputum examination
Measures culture and sensitivity of sputum, collect specimen early in the AM before breakfast
syndrome
a complex of concurrent things
Hidradenitis
Inflammation of a sweat gland
Pleuralgia
pain in the chest caused by inflammation of the muscles between the ribs
Syndactylism
birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
Laparotomy
surgical incision into the abdominal wall
dactylogram
fingerprint
Alopecia
loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers