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Ahs 101


One way movement of blood throughout a closed bodily system. Oxygen and nutrients to the blood


outermost layer of the heart


inner lining of the heart


the middle muscular layer of the heart wall


a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities

interatrial septum

partition between right and left atrium (upper)

interventrical septum

divides the left ventricle from the right ventricle (lower)

right atrium

Recieves unoxygenated venous blood returning from body via veins. (svc & ivc)

right ventricle

Pump unoxygenated venous blood to the lungs.

Left atrium

Recieves blood high in oxygen content as it returns from the lungs.

Left ventricle

Has the thickest wall, pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.


Blood flow between the chambers is regulated by a system of one way valves

tricuspid valves

closes when right ventricle pumps in order to prevent back flow into the right atrium

pulmonary semilunar valve

Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. When right ventricle has emptied, this valve closes in order to prevent back flow into the right ventricle.

Mitral valve

prevents blood from returning to the left atrium

aortic semilunar

Located between the left ventricle and the aorta. Prevents return of aortic blood into left ventricle

pulmonary circuit

carries blood to and from the lungs

systemic circuit

carries blood to and from the rest of the body


active contraction phase


resting period

sinoatrial node (SA node)

pacemaker of the heart

Atrioventricular Node

AV node

Bundle of his

intraventricular septum

Purkinje fibers

causes ventricle to contract


inflammation of the heart lining


inflammation of heart muscle


Inflammation of heart surface

Congenital heart diseases

Developmental abnormalities

Ventricular septal defects

A hole in the interventricular septum

Atrial septal defects

opening between the right and left atria

coarctation of the aotra

a narrow fibrous contristion in the descending thoracic aotra (an extracardiac abnormanilty)

Discussion of coronary heart disease

Includes myocardial blood supply
a)right and left coronary arteries.
b)circumflex coronary artery



angina pectoris

a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart


condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries


hardening of the arteries

coronary thrombosis

the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus

myocardial infarction

heart attack

Dengenerative heart disease

due to deterioration of tissure such as valves and muscle


abnormal heart sounds


listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)

valvular insufficiency

incomplete closure of a valve which permits regurgitation of the blood

valvular stenosis

a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart


a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body


medical instrument that records electric currents associated with contractions of the heart


an X-ray machine that combines an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation


using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram)

various drugs




Function of blood

Blood is the chief means for transporting vital elements within the body, thus important for various body functions:


Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carries carbon dioxide


Blood carries food substances from intestines to tissues


Blood carries waster products from cells to organs for excretion


Blood carries defesnsice cells


Blood carries hormones and other chemical substances that regulate the function of organs.


colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended


(Red Blood Cells) Carry oxygen


(White blood cells) Serves as defense mechanism of the body


(thrombocytes) Bring about the process of clotting


A general condition in which the blood is lacking either in its normal number of RBC's or in its overall quality

Blood Loss Anemias

Anemia due to either acute or chronic blood loss

Hemolytic Anemias

Involves the destruction of RBC's within the vascular system. Example: sickle cell anemia- an inherited disorder

Anemias with decreased RBC production

Example: Bone marrow fails to form enought RBC's


In this disease there is a trendous increase in WBC's. Normal is 5,000 to 10,000 cells/cu mm. In leukemia 30,000 to 50,000 cells may be present

Hemorrhagic Disorders

Include a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal bleeding tendency. These are cause by a breakdown in the clotting mechanism. Example: Hemophilia-Blood fails to clot


Large blood vessels, Thick and very elastic. Has 3 layers. Carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart


Thin blood vessels, less elastic than an artery. Has 3 layers. Carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart


small arteries or branches of arteries.


small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins


decrease in the diameter of blood vessels


dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)

carotid artery

either of two major arteries of the neck and head. There is a right and a left artery.

aorta artery

Largest SINGLE artery in the body, supplies the body with oxygen-rich blood

brachial artery

the main artery of the upper arm. There is a right and a left artery.

radial artery

Below the elbow and extending down the forearm around the wrist and into the palm. There is a right and a left artery.

femoral artery

the chief artery of the thigh. There is a right and a left artery.

Jugular Vein

Large veins on right and a left side of the neck that return blood to the heart from the head and neck.

Superior vena cava

Largest vein in the body. They meet and empty into the right atrium of the heart.

Femoral vein

There is a right and a left femoral vein in the the this returning blood from the thigh to the heart.

Saphenous vein

The largest, greatest, longest vein, in back of ankle to the top of the thigh. the lesser vein back of ankle behind the knee.

inferior vena cava

receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart

Tunica Adentitia (Connective Tissue)

Outer Most Coat=Layer

Tunica Intima (Endothelium)

Inner most Coat=Layer

Tunica Media (Involuntary Muscle)

Middle MUSCLE Coat=Layer


the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart

temporal pulse

pulse located at the temples

Carotid pulse

pulse located in the neck

Apical pulse

pulse taken with a stethoscope and near the apex of the heart (not a pulse)

Radial pulse

pulse of the radial artery (felt in the wrist)

Femoral pulse

pulse of the femoral artery (felt in the groin)

Popliteal pulse


Pedal pulse

pulse located on top of the foot (surface)

Normal pulse for women


Normal pulse for adult men


Normal pulse for children


Normal pulse for Elderly



abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)


abnormally slow heartbeat (below 60 beats per minute)


Pules rate that has occasional skipped beats


Not Regular AKA Arrhythmia. Variation in force and frequency


weak force with each beat (very light)

Diagnosis involving vessels

Ultrasound - Doppler hears the pluse
Direct Inspection


insturment for examing the eye


Phleb=vein, Phlebothrombosis - in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus)


(thrombi) Stationary blood clot


(emboli ) Moving blood clot


Slowness of Normal flow. Venostasis inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces

Anticoagulant drugs

prevent blood clot formation; heparin


(surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)


surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)


flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels

external hemorrhage

Change in drainage, check posterior to the wound

Internal hemorrhage

inside body into tissues and cavities, vomits blood, coughs up blood, loss of conciousness signal this. Little can be done, keep warm, NO FLUIDS

venous hemorrhage

Bleeding - Steady, Heavy flow. Deep Red/Marron Color (Deoxygenated

arterial hemorrhage

Spurting ANd Bright Red Color (Oxygenated)

capillary hemorrhage

Bleeding - Slow, oozing flow, Reddish Brown Color.

Pressure points

A pressure point is a location at which a main artery supplying a particular body area lies near the skin surface and over a bone

Pressure Points - Temporal or scalp

pressure on temporal artery

Pressure Points -Lower face

Pressure on the facial artery

Pressure Points - Neck

Pressure on the carotid artery

Pressure Points -Shoulder or upper arm, chest wall and armpit

Pressure on the subclaivian artery

Pressure Points - Mid-upper arm and elbow

Pressure on the brachial artery

Pressure Points - Leg

Pressure on the femoral artery


bleeding from the nose


vomiting blood


the presence of blood in the urine


coughing up blood or Expectoration


blood in the chest or pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)


Rest or stop bleeding i.e.. by suturing or clamp


It is a state of collapse resulting from circulatory failure.

Hemorrhagic shock

shock resulting from blood loss

Traumatic shock

caused by sudden injury

Neurogenic shock

Loss of control of the nervous system. Blood vessels can not change size in response to stimuli and remain widely dilated.

Psychogenic shock (TQ)

simple fainting - Syncope
Caused by - Not getting enough oxygen to the head
Treatment - Put head down

Cardiogenic shock

shock caused by cardiac arrest

Septic shock

Severe infection.
Vessels dilate and plasma is lost through their walls.

Metabolic shock

loss of body fluids or a change in body chemistry

Anaphylactic shock (TQ)

Severe allergic reaction
Caused by 4 I's - Insect
- Injection
- Ingested
- Inhale

Surgical shock

Following surgery, as in traumatic shock

Respiratory shock (TQ)

Caused by insuffient oxygen in the blood
***It is NOT caused by impairment of circulation

Hypoglycemia shock

low bloodsugar

Electric shock

a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body

Eyes (symptoms of shock)

Dull...Pupils may be dilated,

Skin (symptoms of shock)

Pale..Cold and Clammy..Cyanotic

Respirations (symptoms of shock)

Shallow irregular labored

Pulse (symptoms of shock)

Rapid weak

Blood pressure (symptoms of shock)


Patient may experience

-nausea -vomiting

Blood pressure (TQ)

(BP) refers to the force exited by the blog against the walls of the blood vessels as it flows through them.

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