AS LEVEL:Bio-Psychology


Terms in this set (...)

What is the central nervous system (CNS) and PNS?
This system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS passes messages to and from the brain and connects nerves to the PNS.

It controls behaviour and the regulation of the body's physiological process.

PNS:Part of the nervous system outside the brain. Has 2 main division, the somatic nervous system and automatic nervous system

Relay nerve impulses from the CNS ( the brain and spinal cord) to the rest of the body and from the body back to the CNS.
What is the spinal cord and the brain?
Spinal cord: A bundle of nerve fibres enclosed within the spinal column. Which connects nearly all parts of the body with the brain

Main function is to relay information between the brain and the rest of the body.

This allows the brain to monitor and regulate bodily process e.g. digestion, breathing and to coordinate voluntary movements.

Brain:The part of the central nervous system that is responsible for coordinating sensation, intellectual and nervous activity
What is the Somatic nervous system and automatic system?
Somatic nervous: Part of the PNS system that is responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the CN.

Automatic System: Governs the brains involuntary activities (e.g stress, heartbeat) and is self-regulating.

It is divided into the parasympathetic and and sympathetic nervous system
What is the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?
Sympathetic: Involved with responses that help us to deal with fight or flight e.g increasing heart rate and blood pressure

Parasympathetic: Involved with responses that help us to relax after an emergency has passed e.g slowing down our heart rate, starting up our digestion system
What is the flight or fight sequence? (Acute/short-term stress)
The stressor activates the Sympathetic nervous system which prepares body for fight or flight

This causes the adrenal medulla to release adrenaline or Noradrenaline
What is the response to chronic stress?
•The hypothalamus releases CRH which activates the pituitary gland

•This causes the release of ACTH which acts on the adrenal cortex

•To release cortisol (this supresses the immune system and causes stress effects on the body)
What are sensory, motor and relays neurons?
Sensory: They carry nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and the brain

Motor: Form synapses with muscles and control their contractions

Relay neurones: These neurones are the most common type of neurone in the CNS.

They allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate with each other
What is the endocrine system?
A network of glands throughout the body that manufacturers and secrete chemical messages known as hormones.
What are glands and hormones?
Glands: An organ in the human body which secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body. their function is to produce hormones

Hormones: The body's chemical messengers. They travel through the bloodstream influencing many different processes

Including mood the stress response and bond between mother and newborn baby.
What is adrenaline and the purpose of the pituitary gland?
A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increase rates of blood circulation, breathing, carbohydrate metabolism

It also prepares muscles for exertion.

Pituitary gland:The main gland is the pituitary gland which is located in the brain. It controls the release of hormones from all the other endocrine glands in the body.
What is the sequence for synaptic transmission?
Nerve impulses cross the synaptic cleft. Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters

These neurotransmitters diffuse across the gap between the pre and postsynaptic cell. These stimulate receptors on the postsynaptic neuron

Once activated the receptor molecules either produce inhibitory or excitatory effects. Excitatory effects produce a new action potential