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Where are pigments for photosynthesis located?

thylakoid membranes

Where does photosynthesis take place?


What happens in photosynthesis?

Light reactions when energy is collected and oxygen is released and the Calvin cycle reactions when carbon dioxide is reduced and carbohydrate is formed.

Calvin Cycle

Reactions occur with the stoma; Carbon dixoide is reduced and energy is now stored a carbohydrate CH2O

solar energy
CO2 + H2O (CH2O) + O2


Visible (White) light

Composed of different colors of light; Pigments are specialized to absorb a particular color of light.

____________ contain various pigments allowing them to make use of significant portion of white light for photosynthesis



Technique used to separate pigments found in leaves; It separates molecules from each other on the basis of their solubility

Solvents used in this experiment

Petroleum ether and acetone; Both do not have any charged groups and are therefore Nonpolar

What happens when you used this chromatography technique?

Nonpolar solvent moves up the chromatography paper, pigment moves along with it. More nonpolar a pigment; more soluble it is in a Nonpolar solvent; then this Nonpolar pigment will move faster and farther up the chromatography paper.

fume hood

ventilation hood

Pigment bands

Carotene yellow band at top, Xanthophylls yellow-orange in multiple bands, Chlorophyll a blue-green band, chlorophyll b yellow-green band; It is the lowest

Ratio factor

Measures the distance the solvent moved from the initial pigment spot to the solvent front. R= distance moved by pigment divided by distance moved by solvent

Why is solar energy important to photosynthesis?

During light reactions of photosynthesis, solar energy is absorbed by the photosynthetic pigments and is transformed into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate. No solar energy = No Photosynthesis

What happens to oxygen during photosynthesis?

Oxygen is released; Release of oxygen from a plant indicates that the light reactions of photosynthesis are occurring.

Net photosynthesis

Measurement that does not take into account the oxygen that was used up for cellular respiration.

Why is white light the best for photosynthesis?

Because it contains all the colors of light

Gross photosynthesis

Net photosynthesis + cellular respiration

Rate of photosynthesis

Gross photosynthesis (mm/10 min) X 6

Does photosynthesis absorb all colors the same?

NO. Photosynthetic pigments absorb certain colors of light better than others.

Phenol red

a pH indicator that turns yellow in an acid and red in a base.

Calvin cycle

Takes place in chloroplast stoma; Takes up carbon dioxide and reduces it to a carbohydrate such as glucose; the metabolic pathway that uses NADPH and ATP to assemble Carbon dioxide molecules into three-carbon carbohydrate molecules.

What is function of photosynthetic pigments in photosynthesis?

To absorb certain colors of light.

What happens to water during light reactions?

It is split off.

What happens to the oxygen after it is released during photosynthesis?

It is taken up by a plant when cellular respiration occurs.

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