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Where are pigments for photosynthesis located?
thylakoid membranes
Where does photosynthesis take place?
What happens in photosynthesis?
Light reactions when energy is collected and oxygen is released and the Calvin cycle reactions when carbon dioxide is reduced and carbohydrate is formed.
Calvin Cycle
Reactions occur with the stoma; Carbon dixoide is reduced and energy is now stored a carbohydrate CH2O
solar energy
CO2 + H2O (CH2O) + O2
Visible (White) light
Composed of different colors of light; Pigments are specialized to absorb a particular color of light.
____________ contain various pigments allowing them to make use of significant portion of white light for photosynthesis
Technique used to separate pigments found in leaves; It separates molecules from each other on the basis of their solubility
Solvents used in this experiment
Petroleum ether and acetone; Both do not have any charged groups and are therefore Nonpolar
What happens when you used this chromatography technique?
Nonpolar solvent moves up the chromatography paper, pigment moves along with it. More nonpolar a pigment; more soluble it is in a Nonpolar solvent; then this Nonpolar pigment will move faster and farther up the chromatography paper.
fume hood
ventilation hood
Pigment bands
Carotene yellow band at top, Xanthophylls yellow-orange in multiple bands, Chlorophyll a blue-green band, chlorophyll b yellow-green band; It is the lowest
Ratio factor
Measures the distance the solvent moved from the initial pigment spot to the solvent front. R= distance moved by pigment divided by distance moved by solvent
Why is solar energy important to photosynthesis?
During light reactions of photosynthesis, solar energy is absorbed by the photosynthetic pigments and is transformed into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate. No solar energy = No Photosynthesis
What happens to oxygen during photosynthesis?
Oxygen is released; Release of oxygen from a plant indicates that the light reactions of photosynthesis are occurring.
Net photosynthesis
Measurement that does not take into account the oxygen that was used up for cellular respiration.
Why is white light the best for photosynthesis?
Because it contains all the colors of light
Gross photosynthesis
Net photosynthesis + cellular respiration
Rate of photosynthesis
Gross photosynthesis (mm/10 min) X 6
Does photosynthesis absorb all colors the same?
NO. Photosynthetic pigments absorb certain colors of light better than others.
Phenol red
a pH indicator that turns yellow in an acid and red in a base.
Calvin cycle
Takes place in chloroplast stoma; Takes up carbon dioxide and reduces it to a carbohydrate such as glucose; the metabolic pathway that uses NADPH and ATP to assemble Carbon dioxide molecules into three-carbon carbohydrate molecules.
What is function of photosynthetic pigments in photosynthesis?
To absorb certain colors of light.
What happens to water during light reactions?
It is split off.
What happens to the oxygen after it is released during photosynthesis?
It is taken up by a plant when cellular respiration occurs.