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the violation of norms that a society agrees upon
the violation of norms that have been written into law
the scientific studies of crime, deviance, and social policies that the criminal justice system applies
consensus model of law
suggests that laws arise because people see a behavior they do not like, and they agree to make it illegal
conflict model of law
proposes that powerful people write laws to protect their own interests while punishing the actions of those they wish to control
an effort to bring an offender back into the community after punishment
a measure that prevents a person from doing something because of fear of the consequences
the tendency for inmates released from prison to return to prison