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Art Exam 2
Terms in this set (162)
The 25,000 year old carved figurine, Venus of Willendorf, is associated with
The Great Mother Goddess
The first Paleolithic wall paintings were found in the caves of France and Spain just a short 100 years ago. The most recently discovered paintings, found in 1994 in the ___, turned out to be the oldest (about 30,000 years old)
Chauvet cave (France)
old stone age
new stone age
Stonehenge was erected around 2,000 BCE, which we refer to as the ___ period.
What is not true about Paleolithic art?
The cave paintings are not naturalistic (life-like) depictions of animals but rather abstract patterns.
What is not related to ancient civilizations?
absence of architectural structures
All four ancient civilizations emerged in the valleys of the big rivers. Which territory was named Mesopotamia - "the land between two rivers"?
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers valley (in Iraq)
Sumer was the first civilization in a succession of Mesopotamian peoples/cultures. The ancient Sumerians developed the world's first wheel, plow, and ___.
The Sumerians worshiped their nature gods in shrines set atop gigantic platforms called ___, which are made of sun-baked bricks (core) and fired bricks (facing).
What is not true about Egyptian art?
It is literature, and not the tombs, that is the main source of our knowledge about ancient Egypt.
Egyptian pyramids were built to serve as:
Mask from Mummy Case was found in the tomb of which pharoah?
Earthenware Beaker was found where?
Burial Urn was found where?
Murujuga Petroglyphs was found where?
Deer and Hands (Las Manos Cave) was found where?
Lyre (from "The King's Grave") medium
wood, gold, lapis lazuli, shell, and silver
Head of Akkadian Ruler medium
King Menkaura and Queen Khamerenebty medium
Wall Painting from the Tomb of Nabamun medium
Paint on dry plaster
Neolithic Europe (England)
The Great Pyramids at Giza culture/period
Egypt, Old Kingdom (c. 2500 BCE)
Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu culture/period
Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut culture/period
Egypt, New Kingdom (c. 1450 BCE)
vessel with handles (for mixing wine and water)
related to logical simplicity, balance and restrained emotion
Which celebrated sculptor of classical Greece wrote a treatise on the perfect proportions and developed the canon (set of rules) for constructing the ideal human figure?
The Greek statue of ___ is an excellent example of contrapposto (pose in which the weight is shifted on one leg and one part of the body is slightly turned in opposition to another)
The Spear Bearer by Polykleitos, 5th century BCE
The Greek temple Parthenon was built in the classical period and dedicated to ___, the goddess of wisdom and protector of the Greek navy.
top part of column
square panel with sculpture (part of frieze, above the colonnade)
triangular area atop the narrow end of Greek temple (formed by gables)
slight swelling in the center of column
Oldest, simplest and most sturdy in appearance
Taller, more elegant capital enhanced with volutes
Complex capital composed of ornamental leaves
In the last 300 BCE, the Greek city-states declined and a new artistic style was formed that was more dynamic and emotional. Mediterranean art created during this period is called ___ (meaning greek-like)
This work of art tells a dramatic story about the Trojan priest who tried to warn his people against bringing into the city of Troy the wooden horse (with cunning Greek warriors inside) - and for this he was punished by the Greek gods.
The Laocoon Group
What is not true about the Laocoon Group, unearthed in Rome in 1506 (almost 2000 years after its creation), had a strong influence on the great Renaissance sculptor Michelangelo.
It expresses clarity, balance, and restraint of classical art.
An example from the Archaic period (rigid frontal poses, showing Egyptian influence)
An example from the classical period (proportional, balanced, restrained emotions)
An example from the Hellenistic period (dynamic, theatrical, sensuous)
The Laocoon Group
This grandiose amphitheater, built in 80 CE was named ___ (meaning gigantic).
Colosseum (in Rome)
Rome's greatest contribution was in the field of architecture. Introduction of innovative materials and techniques - such as concrete, arches, vaults and domes - allowed Romans to create interior spaces of immense scale. ___ is the most celebrated ancient example of the large domed construction.
Pantheon temple (in Rome)
The Roman nobility loved luxury and decorated their villas with sophisticated wall paintings - vividly colored and showing some form of perspective. The best preserved examples of those frescoes come from the city of ___ that was buried under the volcanic ash of Vesuvius in 79 CE.
Decorative recessed square (on ceiling surface)
Temple dedicated to all gods (also, community of all gods).
Columned porch (entrance)
Hemispherical roof (half of a sphere).
What is not true about early Christian art?
Christian religion and art were welcomed in Rome in the beginning.
What technique did the Christians use to render the holy images on the walls and vaults of the Roman catacombs?
The impressive head of the Roman emperor ___ represents a new type of sculptural portrait in the Late Roman empire. It is one of a few remaining pieces of a colossal statue.
In the 4th century CE, the great Roman empire was rapidly declining. In 330 CE, emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to the ancient city of ___, which he named Constantinople (present day Istanbul, Turkey).
The interior of San-Vitale Church in Ravenna (Italy) is richly decorated with glittering mosaics. The empress Theodora serves as an example of the Byzantine style. What is false about Byzantine style?
Figures are depicted in a realistic manner - looking like real people.
T/F: The Middle Ages (also called the medieval period) spanned a 1000 year period between two classical cultures - Greco-Roman (when classical ideas emerged) and Italian Renaissance (when these ideas were revived).
Ireland was Christianized in the 5th century. After the fall of Rome, the Irish monasteries became the centers of learning and art. The monks were copying holy books by hand and decorated these manuscripts with intricate interlacing patterrns. In which period of the Middle Ages was the Book of Kells produced
Early Medieval period
The churches built in the Romanesque style look "Roman-like". Which characteristic is not relevant to Romanesque architecture?
Lack of any sculptural decoration
Which famous building provides an example of Gothic style?
Gothic style architecture contains pointed arches, flying buttresses (outer supports), and stained glass windows.
Notre Dame de Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France)
The luminous round window, "Rose de France", in the cathedral Notre Dame de Chartres is dedicated to ___.
The stained glass windows typical of Gothic architecture, filled the churches with majestic light - a medieval metaphor for God's divine presence.
The Virgin Mary
Early Medieval period
5th-10th centuries (400s - 900s)
11th - 12th centuries (1000s - 1100s)
12th - 14th centuries (1100s - 1300s)
Purse Cover (gold, enamel)
Early Medieval (animal style)
What stylistic period was Empress Theodora (mosaic)
What stylistic period was Christ of the Pentecost (sculptural relief)
What stylistic period was Notre Dame de Chartres (cathedral)
Central, main aisle of the church
Part (aisle) that crosses the main axis
Open entrance court (in front of basilica and earlier in Roman houses
Rectangular building ending with an apse
Underground burial chambers in Rome
Small paintings serving as holy images
Tessera (pl: tesserae)
Small piece of colored glass, ceramic tile or stone used in a mosaic.
Christ and the Apostles (early Christian art, catacombs, Rome) technique
Christ as Pantocrator (Cathedral in Monreale, Italy) technique
Madonna and Child (Byzantine icon) technique
Painting (tempera on wooden panel)
Christ as Pentecost (Saint Madeline Cathedral, France) technique
Revival of ___ culture gave the Renaissance period its name.
The Renaissance period lasted about 300 hundred years (roughly 1300-1600) and has been traditionally revered for its artistic achievements. The French word Renaissance literary means "rebirth"
Classical Greece and Rome
___ was the homeland of the Renaissance.
___, an Italian artist, is considered a precursor of the Renaissance. As early as 1305, he departed from the abstract Byzantine style and began depicting the real feelings and appearances of human beings, as can be seen in his Lamentation fresco (Scrovegni Chapel, Padua).
The ___ technique allowed Masaccio to achieve a convincing three-dimensional effect in painting on a flat wall in the illusionistic rendition of a chapel niche in the Holy Trinity fresco.
___, a sculptor, revived the Greek ideal of a perfect human figure. He was the only sculptor that was a great master of the Italian Renaissance.
What fact alludes to a controversial aspect of Botticelli's mythological painting Birth of Venus, as it was seen in 15th-century Florence
A nude pagan goddess was placed in a position previously reserved for the Virgin Mary.
Which fact about the Renaissance man Leonardo da Vinci is not true?
His work portrays people in a stylized medieval manner, and not as individuals.
The contrapposto of Michelangelo's monumental David - a pose with the weight of the body on one foot - was first introduced about 2,000 years earlier by the classical sculptors of ___.
In the Arnolfini Portrait painted by the Flemish artist Jan van Eyck, the dog is a symbol of fidelity, while the green color in the bride's dress symbolizes ___.
The Renaissance in Northern Europe inherited from medieval art the love for symbols.
___ specialized in genre paintings, depicting the scenes of everyday life. He created a famous series of paintings showing the human activities of the 12 months of the year.
Influential Venetian architect Andrea Palladio's influence was NOT ___.
limited to only Italy
Early Renaissance in Italy painter
High Renaissance in Italy painter
Late Renaissance in Italy painter
Renaissance in Northern Europe painter
Jan van Eyck
Artist: The oldest of three, a true Renaissance man; creator of Mona Lisa and Last Supper.
Artist: The world's greatest sculptor, who also painted the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.
Artist: The youngest painter known for his gentle Madonnas and School of Athens fresco in Vatican.
Masaccio's contribution to painting was
Leonardo da Vinci's contribution to painting was
sfumato and chiaroscuro
Jan van Eyck's contribution to painting was
Birth of Venus by Botticelli medium
tempera on canvas
The Babe in the Womb by Leonardo medium
drawing (pen and ink)
St. Paul Preaching at Athens by Raphael medium
Mary Magdalene by Donatello medium
carving (wood, partially gilded)
Which feature is not characteristic of Italian Baroque art?
The baroque style emerged at the end of the Renaissance and roughly spanned the 17th century.
logically balanced composition
Prominent Italian sculptor who carved the marble statues of David and The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa.
The heightened emotions and dramatic use of light make The Conversion of Saint Paul by Caravaggio a prime example of ____ art.
____ inserted his own portrait in his painting of a Spanish royal family from 1665.
Which religious work of art serves as an example of the Baroque in the spanish colonies of Latin America that remained bound to the ideas of the Catholic Counter-Reformation?
Virgin of Guadalupe by Sebastian Salcedo, 1779.
In the Dutch Republic (Holland), the major patrons and buyers of art were:
middle class merchants and bankers
This Flemish artist was a leading proponent of the Baroque style in Northern Europe. He was also a diplomat and prominent humanist scholar.
Peter Paul Rubens
____ is a good example of Baroque architecture.
Baroque art in France had a classical character due to the tastes of the "Sun King" Louis XIV.
The Royal Palace of Versailles
In the mid 18th century, the dramatic splendor of Baroque art gave way to this decorative playful style:
What kind of painting is Jan Vermeer of Delft most closely associated with?
Vermeer painted many views of his native town, where he lived all his life.
Small paintings of simple and clean Dutch middle-class dwellings and landscapes.
Diego Velazquez masterpiece
The Maids of Honor (La Meninas)
Peter Paul Rubens masterpiece
The Raising of the Cross
Rembrandt van Rijn masterpiece
Return of the Prodigal Son
Jan Vermeer masterpiece
The Kitchen Maid
Caravaggio and Bernini nationality
Rembrandt and Vermeer nationality
Baroque art in Catholic Italy and Flanders
Religious subjects glorifying saints and miracles
Baroque art in Protestant Dutch Republic
Secular subjects - landscapes, daily life genre scenes, still life, portraits
Baroque art in Royal France
Scenes of aristocratic life, gallant, courtship, and festivities
Baroque in Holland
Allied with Protestant Reformation
Baroque in Italy
Allied with Counter-Reformation (Catholic Church's response to Reformation)
Baroque in France
Allied with aristocracy and royal court
What is not true about the Return of the Prodigal Son, painted by Rembrandt van Rijn
It is a typical example of Rococo style
The sculpture the Protective Prow Figure from a War Canoe from the Solomon Islands, represents the Oceanic belief in ____, which means "spiritual power"
Known for their massive, carved and often reclining figures, the ____ initiated a major new era in Central Mexico before the Aztecs.
Many Chinese bronze vessels are decorated with a taotie mask which shows a ____.
monster with wigs, claws, and horns.
Japanese ukiyo-e prints, like Kitagawa Utamaro's Reflected Beauty, depict ____.
the everyday world
One of the most famous monuments in Cambodia, ____ features scenes from the life of the Hindu god Vishnu.
Japanese artist Sesshu Toyo's hanging scroll, Splashed Ink Landscape is an example of a style of painting called ____, which means "flung ink".
The ____ is an Islamic holy book which illustrates the most respected form of Muslim calligraphy.
Terra Cotta Warriors, created to protect Qin in the afterlife
six thousand, life size soldiers, discovered in 1974 in China
In Hopi and Zuni culture, male members of tribes dress as birds, animals, clowns and demons to impersonate ____, which means invisible life force spirits.
The Tlingit Community House in Alaska includes a ____, which is characteristic of North American Indian architecture and has plant and animal imagery that represents the Tlingit clan.
a tower that is used to call the faithful to prayer
a place of worship for followers of Islam.
a niche in a building which points the way to Mecca.
a Muslim theological school.
believe in harmony in nature and an "inner life force"
artists and thinkers, devoted to art and poetry and refused to paint or teach for a foreign govmt. when China was conquered by the Mongols.
ancestors live eternally and influence wordly affairs from the spiritual realm.
originated in India, promotes belief in the power of reincarnation and enlightenment.
Shinto Shrine at Ise
occupies sacred site within a Japanese forest, has unpainted wood and thatched roof and is used for practicing the indigenous religion of Japan which is based on nature and ancestor worship.
located in Java, Indonesia, dome shaped structure an example of a stupa or "sacred mountain", and is built atop an ancient burial ground
Pagoda at Hoyuji Temple
tall, many tiered structure inspired by Indian stupas and chinese watchtowers.
Katsura Detached Palace
example of a 17th century imperial villa and garden. Its design is asymmetrical and integrates natural elements like land, water, rocks, and plants so they can blend with human-made elements
the pattern on this african cloth, also called mmeeda, symbolizes important proverbs and ideas and is worn when something unprecedented happens
portable work is an example of how textiles were used in Persia to spread decorative designs, motifs, and ideas to distant regions.
the chevron pattern on this textile indicates the influence of Mexican weaving on certain Native American cultures.
the making of this textile, which represents Nigerian proverbs, involves pressing flour and water paste into a stencil on a cloth and then repeatedly ding the cloth a deep indigo blue which the paste resists.
Head, Nok Culture
one of the oldest surviving examples of Sub-Saharan art, this life sized sculpture of a human head is made from terra cotta and shows a vivid facial expression and abstracted eyes and nose.
Male Portrait Head, Ife Culture
sculpture made from thin, hollow metal, shows a naturalistic head with many fine details as it might appear in real-life.
Benin Head, Benin
somewhat abstract sculpture was intended to glorify and oba, or king, or distinguished ancestors.
Large Dance Headdress, Cameroon
reinterpretation of a human head, made of carved wood, shows different patterns and textures
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