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Cell Signaling

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Signal Reception
signaling molecule from outside the cell binds to receptor protein that allows ions to flow into cell
Signal Transduction
triggering a chain reaction of other proteins which relay the signal to the specific acting molecule
Cellular Response
Third stage of cell signalling; the signal exerts its effects by altering the activity of enzymes, altering the functions of structural proteins, or changing the expression of genes
Ligand-gated ion channel
is a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shapes
Ligand
a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule (receptors)
Receptors
the protein in the phospholipid bilayer that accepts ligands and activates G proteins
Synaptic signaling
a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell
Synapse
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
Hydrophilic
molecules attracted towards water (e.g. receptor's ion channel)
Hydrophobic
molecules scared of water (e.g. receptor's outside layer)
Endocrine Cell
a cell that secretes chemical signals (hormones) to the blood vessels
Target Cell
a cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone
Hormonal signaling
where specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood
G protein-coupled receptor
it is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein
G protein
a protein that binds the energy rich molecule of GTP making it into GDP
Components of hormone system
components of a system where G proteins and cyclic AMP is needed
Adenyl Cyclase
enzyme that converts ATp to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal (GDP)
cAMP
acts like a second messenger and activates other proteins like kinase A after being created in adenyl cyclase
catalyst
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction (e.g. cAMP)
Adrenalin
a hormone that is a good example of signal transduction system
Adrenalin Process
adrenalin ligand flows into the blood stream to a receptor protein to a G protein to an adenyl cyclase which activates protein kinase that activates phosphorylase which activates production of glucose that goes to the blood stream.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
the two molecules that make up Adrenalin