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signaling molecule from outside the cell binds to receptor protein that allows ions to flow into cell
triggering a chain reaction of other proteins which relay the signal to the specific acting molecule
Third stage of cell signalling; the signal exerts its effects by altering the activity of enzymes, altering the functions of structural proteins, or changing the expression of genes
Ligand-gated ion channel
is a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shapes
a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell
where specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood
acts like a second messenger and activates other proteins like kinase A after being created in adenyl cyclase
adrenalin ligand flows into the blood stream to a receptor protein to a G protein to an adenyl cyclase which activates protein kinase that activates phosphorylase which activates production of glucose that goes to the blood stream.
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