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Signal Reception

signaling molecule from outside the cell binds to receptor protein that allows ions to flow into cell

Signal Transduction

triggering a chain reaction of other proteins which relay the signal to the specific acting molecule

Cellular Response

Third stage of cell signalling; the signal exerts its effects by altering the activity of enzymes, altering the functions of structural proteins, or changing the expression of genes

Ligand-gated ion channel

is a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shapes


a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule (receptors)


the protein in the phospholipid bilayer that accepts ligands and activates G proteins

Synaptic signaling

a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell


the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle


molecules attracted towards water (e.g. receptor's ion channel)


molecules scared of water (e.g. receptor's outside layer)

Endocrine Cell

a cell that secretes chemical signals (hormones) to the blood vessels

Target Cell

a cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone

Hormonal signaling

where specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood

G protein-coupled receptor

it is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein

G protein

a protein that binds the energy rich molecule of GTP making it into GDP

Components of hormone system

components of a system where G proteins and cyclic AMP is needed

Adenyl Cyclase

enzyme that converts ATp to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal (GDP)


acts like a second messenger and activates other proteins like kinase A after being created in adenyl cyclase


a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction (e.g. cAMP)


a hormone that is a good example of signal transduction system

Adrenalin Process

adrenalin ligand flows into the blood stream to a receptor protein to a G protein to an adenyl cyclase which activates protein kinase that activates phosphorylase which activates production of glucose that goes to the blood stream.

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

the two molecules that make up Adrenalin

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