Surgical technology for the surgical technologist - chapter 9
Surgical technology for the surgical technologist
Terms in this set (115)
Which of the following is not one of the main sources from which drugs are derived?
The entire process of the drug within the body is
Which of the subcategories of drug preparation is a combination of two liquids that cannot mix
Which type of drug name is nonproprietary and often a shortened version of the chemical name?
Drugs are classified according to
principal action, organ or body system affect, physiological action produced by the drug, or its therapeutic action
Route of admininstration where medication is placed between the cheek and teeth for absorption is
Buccal and sublingual administration is considered to be
Drug administration within a joint is
Drugs with a high potential to cause physiological and or physical dependence and abuse are called
The process of drug absorption into the blood stream by capillaries refers to
The transport of the drug substance that occurs once it enters the circulatory system is
The main function of the liver in metabolism is to
break down drug molecules
What is primarily responsible for excretion of a drug?
describes the study of the interaction of drug molecules with the target cells of living tissue
The period of time required for the effects of the medication to begin to be demonstrated in the patient is
What theory states that the active substance in a drug has an affinity for a specific chemical?
drug receptor interaction
Medication name, strength, amount, and expiration date should be verified
when drug is obtained from storage, prior to prep for use once med is added to the field
interfere with blood clotting mechanisms
The process used to relieve the pain and suffering during surgical intervention refers to
Which of the following brought the practice of intraoperative pain relief formally into the operating room?
Which of the following focuses on altering the patients level of conciousness and minimizing pain and awareness?
Medication absorbed via the mucous membrane and transported to the CNS by the circulatory system is
Which stage of anesthesia can lead to patient death?
Surgical intervention takes place during this phase of General Anesthesia
Sellick's maneuver is also known as
Which is the greatest risk associated with the induction and emergence phases of general anesthesia?
Which agents compromise the largest group of surgical pharmological agents in use today?
Which agents selectively interrupt the associative pathways of the brain?
Devices placed through the patient's nose or mouth, between the vocal cords, and into the trachea to provide a patent airway intraoperatively are
Demerol, Sublimaze, Sufenta, and Alfenta are examples of
Which agents work by mimicking a release of acetylcholine across the neuromuscular junction?
A noninvasive method used to monitor rate, rhythm, and electrical conduction of the heart indicating cardiac function is
Antiemetic agents are use to prevent
Which of the following provides a breath-by-breath analysis of expired carbon dioxide?
Which of the following does not induce hypothermic levels?
The patient warming device that utilizes warm air blown into a special blanket that is placed over the patient is called the
Which monitoring method involves a noninvasive assessment of the hemoglobin saturation levels in arterial blood?
The most widley used amino amide drug is
Nerve plexus block, Beir block, Spinal block and Epidural block are common types of
Blocked method used on intervention of an extremity of one hour duration or less is
Patient cooperation, position and agent baracity can influence the effect of
A common disadvantage of spinal anesthesia is
Hypnoanesthesia and acupunture are types of
nontraditional anesthesia options
A noninvasive monitoring that is used to evaluate the patient's cardiac output and vascular status is
blood pressure monitor
Invasive monitoring devices that are placed into the right atrium via subclavian or jugular access are
central venous pressure (CVP)
These monitoring devices are noninvasive or invasive methods uses to assess the patient's body temperature.
Temperature Monitors (e.g. thermometers, oral, anal or axillary)
A monitoring device that utilizes a noninvasive sensor that is placed on the patient's forehead and attached by a cable to a monitor which continually monitors the patient's brain waves
Bispectral Index (BIS) Monitor
The (SARA) System for Anesthetic and Respiratory Analysis is a
monitoring device that is capable of several monitoring functions (e.g. Capnography, Spirometry, and Oxygen analyzer)
What gives information about the pulmonary status by monitoring ventilatory flow, volume, and pressure?
What confirms the delivery of oxygen to the patient and that the concentration of oxygen is adequate?
An oxygen analyzer
What is used for auscultation during anesthetic delivery?
What is an ultrasonic device used to identify and assess vascular status of peripheral arteries and veins by magnifying the sound of the blood moving through the vessel?
A battery-operated device used to assess the level of neuromuscular blockade by attempting to cause a muscle to twitch is the
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator
Commonly obtained by accessing the radial artery or by placement of a monitoring line into the radial artery
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
1st stage of the Pharmacokinetic process which occurs at the site of administration where the substance is taken into the bloodstream by the capillaries
2nd stage of the Pharmacokinetic process which involves the transport of the medication within the body once it enters the circulatory system
3rd stage of the Pharmacokinetic process where metabolism of the drug most often occurs in the liver but other tissues may be involved
4th stage of the Pharmacokinetic process where the effect of medication in the body continues until it is biotransformed and eliminated
Name the 4 main drug forms
Gas, Liquid, Solid and Semisolid
Name the 7 different subcategories of liquid drug forms
Solution, Aqueous, Syrup, Tincture, Elixir, Suspension, and Emulsion
A drug (solute) is dissolved in a liquid (solvent)
Solution prepared with water
Sweetened aqueous solution
Solution prepared with alcohol
Solid particles are suspended in a liquid
Combination of two liquids that cannot mix
Powder either contained in a capsule, compressed into tablet form or as a lozenge are considered what form of a drug?
What is a Troche?
Another name for a lozenge which is considered a solid drug form
Creams, foams, gels, lotions, ointments and suppositories are examples of what drug form?
Which route of drug administration is administered within a joint?
Intra-articular, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drugadministration is administered into the subarachnoid space?
Intrathecal, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drug administration is administered within between the layers of the skin?
Intradermal, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drug administration is administered under the skin into the adipose tissue layer?
Subcutaneous, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drug administration is administered within a muscle?
Intramuscular, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drug administration is administered into the heart?
Intracardiac, which falls within the Parenteral category
Which route of drug administration is applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect?
Which route of drug administration is placed between the cheek and teeth until it is dissolved or absorbed?
Buccal, which falls within the Topical category
Which route of drug administration is placed under the tongue until it is dissolved or absorbed?
Sublingual, which falls within the Topical category
Which route of drug administration is placed in a hallow or cavity such as the bladder?
Instillation, which falls within the Topical category
Which route of drug administration is directly administered via the respiratory tract?
Inhalation, which falls within the Topical category
Which route of drug administration is administered orally (through the GI tract) or rectally?
Which route of drug administration is administered through routes OTHER than the GI tract?
During this phase of General Anesthesia, loss of consciousness occurs
Occurs as the surgical intervention is being completed
the prevention of disease, or a condition, by use of preventative treatment
Plant, animal, mineral, synthetic and engineered
study of medications and their actions, including drug origins, properties, and uses.
a substance that is used as a medicine for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation, or prevention of diseas or a condition
Food and Drug Administration: Control food regulations and safety in the USA, they also control imported foods and drugs. They make sure that drugs, food, cosmetics and pretty much everything else, is safe for use and make regulations and guidelines for manufacturers and producers of the products. Eg. cigarettes, pet food, mobile phones, baby formula.
a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
Drug source manufactured in a laboratory, by two methods:
synthetic drugs: such as Meperidine AKA: Demerol
semisynthetic drugs: such as the aminoglycoside group of antibiotics
the use of recombinant DNA technology to produce new drug sources, by genetic engineering. Hepatitis B vaccine is made from this method
movement of most druges, when particles cross cell membranes by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move particles across the membrane from an area of high to low concentration
the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy from an area of low to high concentration
Slow rate of drug absorption
how soon the effects of a drug will begin, can be aided by a vasoconstrictor
Reaches circulation very quickly.
how the drug is transported by the blood to the site of action. It requires adequate cardiac output and tissue perfusion, can be affected by the placenta, plasma protein binding, or the blood brain barrier binders
The process by which the body inactivates drugs. Also called metabolism. The liver plays the main function in this process to break down drug molecules
-Kidneys: excreted via urine unchanged or as metabolites
-Skin: through sweat, saliva, tears
-Lungs: exhaled as a gas. Alcohol is an example
-Other routes: stool, mother's milk
The breakdown products of metabolism, that may be made up of active or inactive substances
administered by means other than through the alimentary tract (as by intramuscular or intravenous injection)
relating to areas between the layers of the skin
tissue below the dermis, primarily into the fatty cells that insulate the body
within a muscle
within a vein
within a joint
within a sheath; injection of a substance through the spinal cord and into the subarachnoid space
IC; route of injection where medication is injected directly into the cardiac muscle
medication applied on the surface of the skin or the mucous membrane
of or pertaining administration route in the space between the cheek or the gum, and the teeth
pertaining to below the tongue
Procedure in which a medication is slowly introduced into a cavity or passage of the body (e.g., rectum) and allowed to remain for a specific length of time before being withdrawn or drained.
administration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth