Unit 5 Review: Industrialization & Global integration 1750-1900

Terms in this set (53)

-POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION AND ONSTITUTIONAL EXPERIMENTS
-Simon Bolivar - Gran Columbia- split into three parts (Venezuela, Colombia, and Equador)
-Central America broke away from Mexico
-Other parts of Latin America dissolved into separate states and Latin America became fragmented.
-Regionalism caused fragmentation.
Violence and instablitiy.
-All countries in the Americas experimented with constitutions and often had to revise or change them. (American - Articles of Confederation)
-Many struggled and had disorder, causing personalist rule (authoritarian charismatic leaders)
-Regional elites- caudillos- gathered large militaries. An example: Juan Manual de Rosa (Argentina) Ruled by fear and force of personality
-Catholic Church- divided those who felt role of church was okay in government (conservatives) vs (liberals) who wanted secular system. Mexico- church had long been involved. President Benito Juarez started a movement (La Reforma) to limit the power.
-Mexico later fell to dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz who restored power of the elites. Mexico in chaos by 20th c with revolution

Economic Dependency
-Countries with limited economic development suffered
-Britain- practiced policy of mercantilism- required colonies to trade only with the mother country. Latin American elites did not care about building a capitalist market because they had big profits from European trade and investment.
-Foreign investment by Britain, France, and the U.S. grew by 19th c
-Mexico- Benito Diaz promoted foreign investments and it helped with construction of railroads and telegraph lines. Most of the money went back into U.S. pockets & Mexicans did not benefit.
-1853-1854- showed weakness of Ottoman empire.
-Sparked by Russian attack southward which threatened Ottoman lands. British and France sent troops to protect them. Russia was defeated, but it showed weakness of the Ottoman empire needing protecting from stronger powers.
-Marked the transition from traditional to modern warfare with many types of technology being used. Casualty rates were high.
-Before the war- efforts were made to reform by Sultan Selim III, based on western model. Janissaries revolted, killed new troops and captured Sultan. Sultan Mahmud II, revived reforms and was successful . Reforms focused on military & education. Islami leadership lost power.
-Reforms that followed Mahmud - Tanzimat (meaning reorganization) lasted until 1876. Reforms substituted French legal codes for shari'a law, guaranteed public trials, gave right to privacy and equality under the law. (though marriage and divorce were still determined by Shari'a law) A state ministry of education was created.
-Religious conservatives did not like Tanzimat reforms and wished to have Shari'a law. Radicals seized power in 1876 and gave throne to Abd al-Hamid II (made Sultan). One in power he suspended the constitution and ruled autocratically until 1908.
-Opposition groups began to protest despotic rule. Most well-known is "The Young Turks- formed in Paris by Turks who were exiled for resistance. Inspired Turkish Nationalism- wanted to restore constitution o f 1876.
-1908 - successful coup forced Sultan to restore constitution and a year later the Sultan was dethroned. A new sultan was named, but was powerless. (Mehmed V. Rashid)
-Ottoman Empire by 1900 - much smaller and became the "Sick Man of Europe" due to the failure to westernize and the constant turmoil of the people.
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