Unit 5 Review:Industrialization & Global integration1750-1900
Terms in this set (53)
The Big Picture
-The Industrial Revolution makes it possible for the western civilizations to dominate the world. Technological innovations like steamships, railroads, and telegraphs make it possible to increase wealth and to control other areas of the world.
-Industrialization altered ways of life. Industrialized countries experienced falling birth rates, a trend which has continued to present day. People moved from rural to urban areas, and from less industrialized countries to more industrialized countries. Cities grew and industrialized countries saw a reduction in family size. As populations grew, factories were built and the environment was altered by pollution in the air and water.
-Political forms of government grew, such as the British parliamentary model and democratic forms that were spawned by revolutions in N. America & France. Absolutism was still a viable form of governments as well.
-There is an interest in addressing inequality among individuals and states; reform movements attempt to address it. Abolitionist movements dismantle slavery and other movements toward equality take root in industrialized states. inequality grows as western countries gain power and economic resources at the expense of other areas of the world, such as Africa, the middle east, and china.
-The West dominates by controlling the sea and much of the land.
-The West is expanded to include the U.S., Canada, & New Zealand
-Political stature of Japan and Russia grow
-Middle East and China Decline significantly
-The era is characterized by a change in political organization & Technological innovation
-Challenged traditional political regimes
-People began to rethink basic ideas about political power & individual rights
-Political revolutions are sparked in north America, France, and other parts of the world
-The concept of the nation-state develops
Political revolutions and independence movements in the Atlantic world (American)
The American Revolution:
a struggle for power between England and France caused them to fight the Seven Years' War (also known as the French and Indian War) the British won, but it was very expensive. To pay they levied taxes on the colonies. Numerous laws were passed that made them argue they should have "no taxation without representation".
-July 4, 1776 - Declaration of Independence was signed to sever ties with Britain.
-Revolutionary war was fought in N. America. France aided the colonies.
-General George Washington was in the last battle at Yorktown, VA in 1781. Peace treaty was signed in Paris in 1783
-U.S. created a constitution based on Enlightenment ideals such as, separation of powers, checks and Balances, individual liberties, popular sovereignty. A federalist system of government was developed.
-Slavery was not abolished. Voting was only for property owning free males.
The French Revolution
-A civil war that challenged the political and social structure by demanding an end to absolutism and aristocratic privilege. The French slogan was "liberty, equality, fraternity".
-French were in financial crisis due to debt from helping Americans with the revolution.
-In spite of not calling the Estates General for many years (due to fear that they would call into question the absolute rule of the king), they had to call them together to meet about taxes.
-Middle class representatives demanded that the king share the power with the parliament.
-A series of events takes place:
-Summer 1789, a mob attacks a prison at Bastille. (Storming of the Bastille)
-October - Women march of Versailles to demand the Monarchy does something about starving children.
French Revolution (continued)
-The new parliament, the National Assembly calls for the execution of the King and Queen in 1793
-The French wrote a declaration (much like that of the American Declaration of Independence) called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen was written to proclaim freedom of thought. They called for "natural rights" of citizens.
-Disagreements about the type of government needed erupted. Radical Jacobins stressed the Enlightenment value of equality. The King's supporters called for controlling the restrictions on personal liberties.
-The radicals won and were led by Maximilien Robespierre. They decided that they did not want a king in their government. The King was executed by Guillotine. Many others who were suspected of disloyalty to the new regime were executed as well in what became known as the Reign of Terror. In the end, Robespierre was also executed by guillotine.
-The revolutions (American & French) played a role in the creation of a new concept of nation (a group of people bound together by a common political identity) This was a change from loyalty to a leader or ruler to having a constitution and laws that provided for unity. The idea of a common language and similar customs led to nationalism. (love for one's country; patriotism) This led to a world of competition between nation-states
The Importance Of Napoleon
-Napoleon Bonaparte was charismatic. He inspired French Nationalism.
-He was raised in Corsica and was able to gain a high military position due to the French Revolution. Prior to the Revolution, he would have never held such a high position since he was not from France.
-He took advantage of a threat of attack by an alliance between Austria, Britain, and Russia when he staged a coup d'état to name himself consul and eventually emperor in 1804.
-He was very popular because of he stabilized the country through his Napoleonic Code. The code allowed for equal rights for men & religious freedoms.
-Napoleon aggressively attacked countries around France & by 1810 was at war with all of the major powers on the continent. He grew very powerful and was able to eliminate the Holy Roman Empire. He was stopped in 1812, when he tried to attack Russia. Many of his men could not survive the cold and died.
-The British led an alliance against him and captured Paris in 1814. He was finally defeated in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. Upon his defeat, he was exiled to Elba and then later to St. Helena. He died a few years after he was sent to St. Helena.
Napoleon- the Aftermath
-Congress of Vienna is held to determine what to do with France.
-Balance of Power- to stabilize Europe
-France lost territories/ "the encirclement of France" - countries around it made stronger.
-French Monarchy is restored with Louis XVIII
-Comparing the two revolutions- (French and American)
American Revolution happened and it had settled into a new government
-French Revolution caused chaos- went from military general to emperor and back to monarchy
-Nationalism did not die - France had strong movement to restore republic
-1848- Last king fled
-Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon) took over and restored the empire for 20 years.
After a military defeat by Prussia, republic was restored but was not strong
-The impact of the revolutions were felt beyond their borders. Many other Independence movements spring up in places such as Latin America, Greece, and the Balkans.
19th Century Ideological Influences
-Conservatives: wanted to restore all monarchies (Russia, Prussia, Austria - supporters)
-Liberals: supported personal freedoms, limiting power of the monarch, constitutional law - most were -bourgeoisie (middle class businessmen) who wanted their views to be represented.
-Radicals: wanted equality more than liberty - wider voting rights and more direct participation for the ordinary person - attacked private property as a source of inequality and gave basis to philosophy of Karl Marx (Father of communism in the mid-19th c.)
-Nationalism: extreme loyalty to a country. Was often supported by liberals and radicals.
-1820 - Greece had a revolution. Independence was gained from Ottoman Empire. This inspired dismantling of Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
-French ousted Louis XVIII 1830
-Belgian Revolution 1830
-Unification of Germany and Italy
-Count Camillo Di Cavour-challenged Austrian control of Italian states & was joined by Giuseppe Garibaldi
-Otto von Bismark - German Nationalism "Blood and Iron"
The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
-French colony- Saint-Domingue was one of the wealthiest in the Americas. Large plantations - sugar, cotton, indigo, coffee
-Gens de couleur - mixed-race planters and merchants wanted political equality - did not want to free slaves-the leader was murdered-warfare ensued
-Slaves saw chance to rebel under François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture/1801 wrote a constitution/ended when France sent troops to restore order/ in 1804 Haiti gained independence and was first black republic in western hemisphere
WARS OF INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
-Creoles outnumbered peninsulares/creoles wanted to get rid of control by the Spanish and Portuguese
-1810-1825 creoles led revolutionary movements which resulted in gaining political control.
-Juntas (made up of military leaders) were set up to rule in place of King Ferdinand of Spain. Juntas later were composed of creoles.
-Spanish South America
-1810 - Simon Bolívar- won victories in Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador. Eventually he defeated the Spanish. Until 1830 area controlled by Bolivar was Gran Colombia (he hoped for uniting all Spanish Americans under one government). Not successful, Gran Columbia Broke up.
-José de San Martin - junta leader in Argentina
-Could not stop regional factions from forming - was not able to unite the people
-By 1825, all of Spanish S. America had political independence - all new states founded republics with representative governments
-Mexico - Revolution in 1810- led by ideas of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
-1811 Hidalgo executed
-Revolution continued under Jose Maria Morelos (he was executed in 1815)
-Creole military officer - Augustin de Iturbide - combined forces and Mexico gained independence in -18211. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico which greatly offended liberals. He was overthrown and executed.
REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS: SLAVERY ANDS WOMEN'S RIGHTS
-The Abolitionist Movement - late 1780's
-Mix of Enlightenment ideals and Christianity
Britain 1807- passed legislation for stopping slave trade. Others followed - U.S., France, the Netherlands, Spain.
-Finally the Atlantic states abolished slavery by the end of the 19th century.
-Enlightenment Philosophes mainly focused on rights for men.
-Mary Wollstonecraft-focused on educating women to be better mothers.
-In France, under radical rule - women gained rights, but when Napoleon took over, rights were not given.
-Many women supported abolitionist movement, women's suffrage and equality. No rights were gained until the 20th century.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
-A economic change in the source of energy for work
Machines replace human labor
-Two changes: 1. technological innovation 2. organizational changes
1. A well-developed middle class (bourgeoisie) and capitalist structure
2. Agricultural improvements - increased food production. Introduction of the potato in Europe. Enclosure movement helped with experimentation with crops.
3. Population increase - due to food production increase; created a large labor force; death rate fell and birth rate rose especially in England.
4. Transportation - water transportation-location of Great Britain & topography
5. Stable government - constitutional monarchy-strong/supportive
of entrepreneurial efforts.
6. Early inventiveness - James Watt (1st steam engine)
7. Raw Materials - coal and iron-ore
British Beginnings continued...
-Early technological innovation
-Mass production of pottery
-First to develop pottery business that mass produced porcelain - Josiah Wedgwood
-Textile industry (cotton) - spinning jenny & Eli Whitney's cotton gin
-Iron industry- Darby- coke smelting/ interchangeable parts
-Steam Engine - James Watt/ development of railroad
-Communications - electric telegraph/ Samuel morse invented morse code
-THE FACTORY SYSTEM AND THE EVOLUTION OF BIG BUSINESS
-WORKERS ARE BROUGHT TO THE MACHINES - FACTORY SYSTEM BEGINS/STRICT DIVISION BETWEEN WORKERS AND MANAGERS & A SMALL GROUP OF FACTORY OWNERS.
-TEDIOUS WORK WITH UNSKILLED WORKERS (SOME CHILDREN) LOW WAGES
-JOINT STOCK COMPANIES PROMOTED LARGE CAPITALIST ENTERPRISES AND SPARKED THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATIONS
MONOPOLIES WERE FORMED
THE SPREAD OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
-By mid 1800's it had spread to France, Germany, Belgium, and the U.S.
-The spread followed belts of coalfields and iron ore.
In U.S. -first textile mill in Rhode Island 1791- Samuel Slater
-New York City was one of the world's greatest ports
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF EARLY INDUSTRIALIZATION
- Movement from rural to urban
-Families were disrupted as young people moved to the cities for work
-Overcrowded neighborhoods, poor sanitation, increased crime rates, pollution
THE NEW URBAN AND RURAL ENVIRONMENTS
-Deforestation was serious problem (1450-1750)/ the problem was lessened by the new use of coal and iron ore and less on wood
-Areas in the United States - cutting down& burning trees to make way for industrialization.
-Cities and towns grew rapidly- London by 1850 was 2,400, 000 (the largest city the world had ever known)
Industrialization caused inequality between the rich and the poor
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF EARLY INDUSTRIALIZATION (continued)
SOCIAL CLASS DISTINCTIONS
-Wealthiest = captains of industry=new elite
-Middle class grew
-Lower classes were laborers - worked for low wages, were unskilled- lived in crowded housing and worked long hours, women and children worked too
-Life changed - family members worked outside of home - separate lives - children working long hours too
-Changed roles of men and women. Working class - both worked outside home. Women's wages were lower than men.
-Middle-class & elite class- gender roles different - sense of pride for men if women stayed home and did not have to work. Middle class men had leisure time to work on self-improvement such as reading, attending lectures, helping with the church.
-Middle-class women were limited to roles of wife and mother. They had many luxuries with servants. They handled the social events of the family and had an insulated world. This was often referred to as "cult of domesticity"
The Demographic Transition
-Birth rates fell as children lost value as workers on the farm
-Value of self-improvement instilled in middle-class -children- were educated
-Families limited number of children for financial reasons
-low birth rates/low death rates = slowing of population growth by second half of 19th c
-Diets improved, better housing, medical advancements, discovery of germs (Louis Pasteur)
REACTIONS TO INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: REFORM AND RADICALISM
-Laissez-faire (Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations) - invisible hand in economy
-SOCIALISM - opposition to Laisses-faire- fought to combat inequalities. First appeared in 1830's as Utopian -Socialism (Charles Fourier & Robert Owen)
-Most radical = Karl Marx (revolution not reform) "Father of Communism" - The Communist Manifesto written in 1848. He thought proletariat would overcome the bourgeoisie and social class would disappear.
-STARTING IN 19TH C LABOR UNIONS FORMED TO PROTECT WORKERS- THEY WERE CONSIDERED TO BE ILLEGAL BEAUSE THEY RESTRAINED TRADE.
STRIKES WERE HELD AND CONSIDERED TO BE VERY CONTROVERSIAL
-UNIONS GAINED POWER AND HELPED GAIN BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS & PAY BY THE EARLY 20TH C
THE RISE OF THE UNITED STATES
-Westward expansion and political stability
-1823 - isolationist policy of the Monroe Doctrine
-Louisiana Purchase 1803; annexation of Texas 1845; gained California and other territories after war with Mexico in 1848
-Immigration intensified in 1840's - especially from Ireland & Germany
-The Civil War 1861-1865 - northern states vs southern states
-Northern - industrial/southern - large plantations reliant on slave labor
-North victory- slaves emancipated
-Industrialization accelerated due to civil war - heavy industry; railroads
-New wave of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe in 1880's
-Diplomacy and Cultural Development
Change from isolationism to expansionism policy by Theodore Roosevelt
-America still influenced by European culture - -Romanticism movement spread to U.S. - romanticism was a reaction to the Enlightenment and focused on emotion.
-Charles Darwin - evolution
-Sigmund Freud - psychology
The Americas AFTER INDEPENDENCE
-THE DOMINION OF CANADA - self-governing while still being attached to Britain.
-Federalist system with a parliament and Prime Minister.
-All of Canada was incorporated into the Dominion and a National Policy focused on economic development. Immigrants wee attracted to Canada from eastern Europe and Asia for industry and agriculture.
The Americas AFTER INDEPENDENCE (Latin America)
-POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION AND ONSTITUTIONAL EXPERIMENTS
-Simon Bolivar - Gran Columbia- split into three parts (Venezuela, Colombia, and Equador)
-Central America broke away from Mexico
-Other parts of Latin America dissolved into separate states and Latin America became fragmented.
-Regionalism caused fragmentation.
Violence and instablitiy.
-All countries in the Americas experimented with constitutions and often had to revise or change them. (American - Articles of Confederation)
-Many struggled and had disorder, causing personalist rule (authoritarian charismatic leaders)
-Regional elites- caudillos- gathered large militaries. An example: Juan Manual de Rosa (Argentina) Ruled by fear and force of personality
-Catholic Church- divided those who felt role of church was okay in government (conservatives) vs (liberals) who wanted secular system. Mexico- church had long been involved. President Benito Juarez started a movement (La Reforma) to limit the power.
-Mexico later fell to dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz who restored power of the elites. Mexico in chaos by 20th c with revolution
-Countries with limited economic development suffered
-Britain- practiced policy of mercantilism- required colonies to trade only with the mother country. Latin American elites did not care about building a capitalist market because they had big profits from European trade and investment.
-Foreign investment by Britain, France, and the U.S. grew by 19th c
-Mexico- Benito Diaz promoted foreign investments and it helped with construction of railroads and telegraph lines. Most of the money went back into U.S. pockets & Mexicans did not benefit.
THE ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVERY: IMPACT ON THE AMERICAS
-Impact was felt more in the Americas than in Europe due to the reliance on slave labor.
-Most Spanish American republics prohibited slave trade by 1830s and slavery was prohibited in the U.S. in 1865.
-Slavery in the Caribbean last longest in Cuba (ended in 1888) and Puerto Rico (ended in 1873)
-MIGRATION TO THE AMERICAS
-Mass migrations in the 19th c of Europeans and Asians to the Western hemisphere.
Industrialists paid them low wages.
-By 1850's about 2.3 million immigrants lived in the U.S. And more came in 1880 when another wave occurred.
In west - farming of lands in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys; eastern cities to work in factories and businesses.
-From southern and eastern Europe- stayed along Atlantic coast
-Chinese immigration increased in 1840's, peaked in 1852 and 1875 (200,000 migrated to California)
THE ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVERY: IMPACT ON THE AMERICAS (continued)
-Chinese- many came as indentured servants to work in agriculture or to build railroad. Some came for gold rush in 1849. some Chinese went to Canada as well.
-Latin American Immigrants came mainly to work on agricultural plantations. During 1880s and 1890s 4 million Italian immigrants came to Argentina or Brazil to work on coffee plantations. Others went to sugar plantations in Cuba; cotton fields or to build railroads in Peru. Hawaii- Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and Koreans to work on island plantations.
RELATIONS BETWEEN NORTH AND LATIN AMERICA
-1898 Spanish American War- U.S. joined Cuba in a war against Spain
-Spain lost its last colonies
-U.S. stayed in Cuba and controlled the actions of the new government
-By 1900, resentments between Latin American and U.S. governments were growing and would continue to grow into the 20th c.
Land-based empires in the middle east, Asia, and Russia
-Traditional land-based powers had problems that challenged their authority and economic welfare.
-All four land-based empires (Ottoman, Qing China, Russian, Japanese) had unsuccessful confrontations with western empires.
-Industrialized nations had stronger armies & navies
-Europe and U.S. forced them to make concessions that set up better business and trade arrangements, resulting strengthening of the industrialized West at their expense.
-All four empires suffered from population pressures and failing crop production. They lost money, which made it difficult to fund a strong military.
-All faced corrupt governments and rebellion by peasants.
-They were open to western intervention and had a disadvantage when dealing with foreigners.
-Attempts were made at reform, including writing constitutions, limiting governmental power, restructuring education, and making an effort to industrialize.
-Ottoman, Russian, Qing - all in crisis. Japan (Tokugawa) was the exception, they were well on way to becoming a world power
THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
-1750 - in decline, though still land holdings in Middle East, eastern Europe, and northern Africa. Reached the peak in 16th C under Suleiman the Magnificent.
-18th c. sultans had problems keeping the empire united.
-The era was characterized by conservatism and reverence for tradition, which kept them from advancing technologically and keeping up with the west.
-Early 19th C.- Ottoman could no longer combat European economic involvement, or prevent loss of territories. Egypt declared independence, France occupied Algeria, and European states were capturing northern an western territories.
MILITARY WEAKNESS AND TERRITORIAL LOSSES
-Ottomans had always depended on a strong military, but by 17th they had reached the limits of expansion, they were slow to adapt to new military technology, and had a serious breakdown in the effectiveness of the Janissary corps.
-The Balkans were vulnerable due to rising Russian power in the 18th c
-Nationalism worked against Ottoman unity. Independence movements in Greece (1830) and Serbia (1867)
-N. Africa - Napoleon invaded Egypt (1798)- sparked competition among Egyptian elite leaders for control- Muhammad Ali becomes leader. He builds powerful army and implemented military reforms, and industrialized. Foreign investment played a big role in modernization with building of railroads and Suez canal.
-1882 - British occupied the area of Egypt
THE CRIMEAN WAR AND REFORM
-1853-1854- showed weakness of Ottoman empire.
-Sparked by Russian attack southward which threatened Ottoman lands. British and France sent troops to protect them. Russia was defeated, but it showed weakness of the Ottoman empire needing protecting from stronger powers.
-Marked the transition from traditional to modern warfare with many types of technology being used. Casualty rates were high.
-Before the war- efforts were made to reform by Sultan Selim III, based on western model. Janissaries revolted, killed new troops and captured Sultan. Sultan Mahmud II, revived reforms and was successful . Reforms focused on military & education. Islami leadership lost power.
-Reforms that followed Mahmud - Tanzimat (meaning reorganization) lasted until 1876. Reforms substituted French legal codes for shari'a law, guaranteed public trials, gave right to privacy and equality under the law. (though marriage and divorce were still determined by Shari'a law) A state ministry of education was created.
-Religious conservatives did not like Tanzimat reforms and wished to have Shari'a law. Radicals seized power in 1876 and gave throne to Abd al-Hamid II (made Sultan). One in power he suspended the constitution and ruled autocratically until 1908.
-Opposition groups began to protest despotic rule. Most well-known is "The Young Turks- formed in Paris by Turks who were exiled for resistance. Inspired Turkish Nationalism- wanted to restore constitution o f 1876.
-1908 - successful coup forced Sultan to restore constitution and a year later the Sultan was dethroned. A new sultan was named, but was powerless. (Mehmed V. Rashid)
-Ottoman Empire by 1900 - much smaller and became the "Sick Man of Europe" due to the failure to westernize and the constant turmoil of the people.
CHINA'S LAST DYNASTY
-Qing- strong in 1750 but by late 18th c began to decline:
-Corruption within the government - exam system corrupt; revenue was going into pockets of bureaucrats leaving no money for public works projects; food shortages; vagabonds roaming countryside; bandits. Mandate of Heaven was lost and the time came for a new dynasty
THE MCCARTNEY EXPEDITION
European and Chinese clash- delegation led by George McCartney (British) to open trade between China and Britain. Chinese Canton System restricted trade. The ethnocentrism on both sides made it so they could not agree, resulting in McCartney going home with nothing.
The Opium wars - 1839-42
-England was technologically superior to China. Due to trade imbalance, Europeans looked for a product to sell to Chinese. They found opium in India and introduced to the Chinese.
-Opium was very addictive. Many in the Chinese government protested the trade due to the risk to the public health. From the early 18th c., Qing emperors forbade opium. In spite of efforts to stop it, they were unsuccessful. The emperor blockaded and confiscated opium. British said this stopped free trade and declared war. The Qing could not defeat Britain.
THE UNEQUAL TREATIES
-After war- Treaty of Nanking was signed.
-Dismantled the Canton System; increased number of ports open to foreigners; British were allowed to conduct business under British law while in China; Qing had to pay 5% tariff on imports for "starting" the war.
China forced to guarantee Britain "most favored nation status"
-Treaties became known as "Unequal Treaties"
By 1900- Chinese ports were spheres of influence (controlled by a designated foreign Nation)
-Led by Hong Xiuquan (a Christian from Guangxi province) - led a movement called "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace" to drive the Manchu (Qing) out of China. Followers believed he was the brother of Jesus.
-Rebellion grew and many joined due to discontentment. Reforms called for were radical including abolition of private property, prohibition of foot binding, free public education, establishment of democratic political institutions. Named Nanjing as their capital city in 1853.
-In 1864, government put down the rebellion. 20 to 30 million lost their lives and became the world's bloodiest civil war.
THE SELF-STRENGTHENING MOVEMENT
-To counter the challenge from the west by modernizing China; they encouraged western assistance. The Manchu had lost control with fragmentation of power. Emperors refused to adopt reforms.
-Well known ruler, Cixi - fiercely resisted reforms.
Qing secretly encourage Boxer Rebellion to expel the foreigners
CONSERVATISM AND REFORM IN RUSSIA
-Westernization by Peter the Great - built navy, improved military, expanded the shores of the Baltic Sea, and increased Russian interaction with Europe.
-Catherine the Great - (1762-1796)- like Peter wanted stronger Russia with western technology and warm-water ports. Was an absolute ruler who became known as an "enlightened despot" (for her Enlightenment ideals).
-Other "enlightened despots" were Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia
-Catherine the Great- well educated; supported economic development supported nobility. (Pugachev rebellion - to gain rights for peasants was crushed by her army)
-Russia expanded and was strong at the end of her reign
CONSERVATISM OF THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY
-Tsar Alexander I led Russia to resist Napoleon in 1812. this solidified his leanings toward conservatism. He supported the Congress of Vienna and formed a Holy Alliance with Austria and Prussia. However, liberal ideas still filtered into Russia.
-Successor Nicolas I faced Decembrist Revolt (1825) - led by western-oriented military wanting reform. He responded with repression and crushed rebellion.
19th c - resistance to westernization caused a lag in industrialization. Russia remained feudalistic.
THE REFORM ERA
-Alexander II - looked to reform while keeping Russian traditions. He ended serfdom.
-Created zemstvoes - local political councils - gave a voice to middle class, set policy for building roads and education of children.
-Strengthened the army.
-Trans-Siberian Railroad connected east to the Pacific coast- stimulated iron and coal industry
POLITICAL UNREST AND PROTEST
-Reforms encouraged people to ask for more reforms. Nationalism was growing very strong.
-Intelligentsia - radical group who spread political opinions through expansion of universities and access to the printed word.
-Anarchists - opposed formal government
REGIME CHANGE IN JAPAN
-Tensions between shogun and daimyos, however commerce & manufacturing were growing. Growing number of merchants and urban culture was developing.
-Mid-century - tokugawa Shogunate was weaker than ever, economic growth was slow, lack of technology kept agriculture from advancing, and rural protests took place.
-1853- Matthew Perry - "black ships" arrived in Edo Bay near Tokyo. Perry (U.S. president sent him) demanded that the Japanese open ports to trade. A year later - unequal treaty (Treaty of kangawa)was signed by shogun.
The Meiji Restoration
-Daimyos- furious about unequal treaty- called for overthrow of Tokugawa
-Brief civil war ending in overthrow of Tokugawa Shogunate
-New regime- Meiji Restoration (Meiji= "enlightened rule")
-Oligarchy (rule by a few) - they established "the cult of the emperor" to glorify the emperor as a symbol of Japanese power. (though the emperor had no real power)
-No longer practiced isolationism
-Education- focused on literacy, competency, and loyalty to Japan. Universal education with elites going to university. Western influence on technological and scientific subjects. Confucian values. Textbooks were censored.
-Military organization - feudal order abolished. Modern army and navy developed.
-Political policies and structures - revised finance (stipends for samurai abolished) Taxes broadened to include all economic activities. Merit based civil service exams. Established a parliamentary system (The Japanese Houser of Peers) Lower house (Kiet)
-Industrialization- government banks and railroads to support economic development. Government operated mines, shipyards, steel factories, and armaments plants. Economic policy set by Ministry of Industry\
-Japan challenged Chinese by seizing lands claimed - Taiwan and Korea.
-Unequal treaties eliminated
-Russo-Japanese War - 1904-1905 - japan victorious making Japan a clear world power.
IMPERIALISM AND THE GROWTH OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
-IMPERIALISM = EMPIRE BUILDING
-NATIONALISM AND INDUSTRIALIZATION MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR EUROPEAN NATIONS TO BUILD GLOBAL EMPIRES. Nationalism = support from citizens to expand empire. Industrialization = need for raw materials.
-"The sun never sets on the British Empire".
-Greatest imperialist powers of the 19th c. - Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Russia. End of 19th c - U. S. and Japan had joined in.
TYPES OF IMPERIALISM
-Colonial imperialism - a territory or colony actually occupied and ruled by a foreign nation.
-Political Imperialism - dominant country uses diplomacy or military force to influence internal affairs of a weaker nation.
-Economic imperialism - inspired by the desire to control global trade and commerce.
-Social-cultural imperialism - empire-building based on a desire to influence a territory to adopt the cultural values and social customs of the imperialist country.
FORMS OF IMPERIALISM
-Tropical dependencies - Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific (a small number of Europeans ruling non-western people)
-Settlement colonies - Canada, Australia, New Zealand, south Africa, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii (destinations of European settlers)
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND IMPERIALISM
-Nations looked for raw materials for factories (cotton, hemp, metals, dyes)
-Second Industrial Revolution - 1860 made it possible to spread influence all over the world.
-Important innovation - Bessemer steel converter - accelerated effectiveness of machinery and products.
-Chemical industries grew- produced synthetic substances for dyes for textiles, fertilizers, and explosives for construction.
-Plastics became available.
-Thomas Edison - experimented with electricity
-Suez Canal (1859-1869) & Panama Canal (1904-1914)- construction due to industrialization. Helped the travel of ships and lowered costs of trade. Made communications easier
THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA
-Nawabs- Muslim princes made agreements with british, dutch, and French companies o establish trading posts. By 1750, staffed by company men-hired and trained Indian troops (sepoys)
-Black Hole of Calcutta
-Rule by the East India Company
-British raj is established in India by the East India company. (example of economic imperialism)
-Dual message to Indians: preserve cultural heritage but conform to British customs and beliefs.
-India had once been leading exporter of cotton finished good, but by mid 19th c British demanded export of raw cotton, not finished goods
The Sepoy Rebellion
-1857- massive rebellion. Sparked by conflict of cultures due to the fact that bullets for rifles were covered in animal fat. Sepoys were told to tear paper with their teeth, sepoys refused due to fat from cows being sacred.
BRITISH IMPERIAL RULE
-Britain had a viceroy representing Britain in India. Viceroy had elite Indian Civil Service that was mostly Englishmen. Viceroys had elaborate palaces. Few Indians were able to hold powerful positions. Railroad owners were British and workers were Indian.
-Cities grew and disease travelled as people moved around. Cholera increased deaths in the 19th c. A new sewage system was installed in Calcutta and in reduced deaths, but cholera was still a problem in India.
-Western style schools for the elite to help fill administrative posts by those who understood the English language and customs. Taught technical and scientific knowledge, western literature and manners.
-Although educated by British, were not allowed same privileges as Englishmen. On the other hand, western educated Indians did not have anything in common with traditional Indians.
-Indian Nationalist - Rammohun Roy - Pan-Indian nationalism
-In 1885, Indian National Congress convened.
IMPERIALISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
-16th c - Spain claimed the Philippines - to help control trade between China and Spanish America; many islands in SE Asia captured by the Dutch.
-British turned to Southeast Asia to stimulate more trade between India, SE Asia, and china. By 1880's gained control of Burma, by 1820's port of Singapore which they used in the 1870's and 1880's as a base to conquer Malaya (Malaysia)
-French- established French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
-Siam was left neutral
-1898- after defeat of Spain in Spanish-American war-U.S. took Philippines as a colony
IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
-Diamonds, gold, copper in central and southern Africa stimulated "Scramble for Africa"
-David Livingstone- Christian missionary who wrote about travels to Africa
-Muhammad Ali - Egypt - Important to Europe because he supported European influence. He modernized by introducing irrigation projects and by producing cotton for British textile mills. European creditors leaned heavily on Egypt when they felt the debt of the American Civil War. Britain controlled Egypt with forces sent to protect the Suez canal.
-French invaded Algeria- to suppress piracy and collect debts. Algerians wanted independence. Warfare broke out (led by Abed al-Qadir)and French won. Algerians were still hostile about occupation by French.
-Dutch established Cape Colony as stopping point for ships between Europe and S. Asia
-Political and social unrest in 19th c- leader named Shaka took control of Zulu kingdom (1816) Many groups were displaced (Soshagane, Nguni, and Sotho)
-Dutch settlers moved inland "Great Trek" of Boers (Dutch) This caused problems with those displaced by Zulus. Two Boer Republics - Orange Free State and Transvaal
-Europeans sought gold and diamond deposits in Cape Colony. Cecil Rhodes - British entrepreneur founded DeBeers Consolidated.
-Two Colonies named after Rhodes: Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
-British tried to annex Boer republics and sparked Boer War- British won but left to let them govern themselves
EXPLORERS AND MISSIONARIES
-David Livingstone - desired to find new converts. Wrote journals about his experiences.
-American journalist, Henry Stanley set off to find him. Found him "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
-Between 1875 and 1900 European imperial powers raced to claim lands in Africa.
-King Leopold II declared the basin of the Congo River to be a free trade zone- forced African labor on rubber plantations
-Berlin conference - Otto von Bismarck- representatives sat down and carved out claims of Africa. All was colonized except Ethiopia and Liberia.
IMPERIALISM IN THE PACIFIC
-European settler colonies in Australia and New Zealand, most smaller Pacific islands became tropical dependencies.
-1770s Captain James Cook- anchored on Australia's shore. Later, convicted criminals would establish a colony. Nearby islands became destinations for British immigrants.
-Natives- got diseases from new people. Small pox and measles killed large numbers. Aborigines were evicted from Australia and Maori signed a treaty in New Zealand for protection.
-Claims in Pacific: France - Tahiti, the Marquesas, New Caledonia ; British - Fiji; Germany - Marshall Islands.
-Hawaii not a colony until U.S. annexed islands in 1898. Missionaries went to Hawaii. Investors wanted sugar plantations. American naval base at Pearl Harbor
GLOBAL CHANGES IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM
-Economic changes - natural resources controlled by imperialist countries. Most were raw materials for factories of Europe.
-Labor Migrations - people were encouraged to migrate where labor was most needed. Many became indentured servants. Indian migrants- rubber plantations in SE Asia, S Africa, and the Pacific Islands. Chinese laborers- sugar plantations in Caribbean, gold mines in S. Africa and Australia, and railroad construction in U.S, Canada, and Peru. Japanese and Chines to sugar plantations in Hawaii; African laborers to sugar plantations in Caribbean islands.
-Social consequences - conflicts- segregation from the natives. Mixed marriages frowned upon. Upper and middle-class natives seldom socialized with Europeans. Women gained better educational opportunities.
-Scientific Racism - assumption that world is divided into four main racial groups. Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, characterized Africans as lazy and unintelligent, Europeans as intelligent and morally superior, Asians as smart but non-assertive, and American natives as arrogant yet dull.
-Charles Darwin - The Origins of species (1859) theory of Social Darwinism - survival of the fittest
-Social Darwinist - Herbert Spencer- ideas were used to justify wealth of entrepreneurs in opposition to laborers, as well as domination of European imperialists over subject peoples.
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