Standard rules that sociologists use when investigating questions. These are approaches social scientists use to get answers.
Methods that seek to gain information about the social world in numerical form, or in a form that can be translated to numbers. Uses statistics and seeks to answer questions by adhering to strict scientific methods.
Methods that seek to gain information about the social world that cannot be converted to numerical form. These methods use description and subjective interpretation, and seeks to get at the deeper meanings of reality. These methods give the researcher a "thick description".
A research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations, then analyzes the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory. Known as "theory testing".
A research approach that starts with empirical observations, seeks to find a pattern, forms a tentative hypothesis, and then works to form a theory. Known as "theory building".
Exists when change (variation) is observed in two things simultaneously.
The idea that change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor.
When a researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B is causing A.
A measured factor that the researcher thinks has a causal impact on the dependent variable. This is the variable that is believed to influence or cause changes.
The outcome the researcher is trying to explain; the variable believed to be influenced by the independent variable.
Proposes a relationship between two variables; between two or more aspects of social relationships.
The process by which a researcher specifies the parameters and defines how a variable will be measured. This is when a precise method for measuring a term occurs.
The extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
The likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure.
The extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied.
Analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and affect on, our research. This is being aware of the affect you may be having on the people or social situation.
The entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may be drawn.
The subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data.
A qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice.
An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondents.
Methodology by which two or more entities which are similar in many ways but differ on one question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them.
Methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields. These often involve comparisons to a control group that dd not experience such an intervention.
A systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech, or film.
An overall practice of sociological research, teaching, and service that seeks to engage a non-academic audience for a normative, productive end.