How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

89 terms

Animal Nutrition KSU

Quiz 2, Test 1
STUDY
PLAY
prepare food for absorption
main function of GI tract
monogastric
non-ruminant
4 parts of small intestines
duodenum, jujenum, lleum
3 terms for the mouth of a pig
prehension- getting food into the mouth
mastication- chewing
bolus formation- lubrication
salivary lipase
enzyme secreted in pig to break down fats
salivary amylase
enzyme secreted in pig to break down carbs
4 types of teeth
incisors-cut
canine- tear
premolars and molars- chewing
3 types of salivary glands
2 parotid glands
2 submaxillary glands
sublingual gland
parotid glands
behind the cheek
50% of saliva production in cows
(submaxillary is on jawline, sublingual is under the tounge)
main secretion of glands
sodium-bicarbonate
others include mucus and watery fluid
esophagus
hollow muscular tube, transports feed to sotmach via peristalsis
peristalsis
what gets feed to the stomach
acid secretion of HCl
main function of the pig stomach (along with mixing and secretion of a few enzymes)
4 regions of stomach
esohageal, cardiac, fundic, pyloric, pylorus
in pig
esophageal
region in stomach that serves no function besides connecting stomach to esophagus. (no secretion)
in pig
cardiac
region in stomach with mucus secretion, after esophageal in pig
fundic
region in stomach with acid and enzyme secretion
in pig
pyloric
region with mucus secretion, last region in stomach
in pig
parietal
cells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor
peptide
pepsin cleaves _____ bonds
chyme
after pepsin cleaves protein into peptide, it leaves the stomach as _____.
3 parts of small intestine
duodenum, jujunum, lleum (50 ft).
small intestine
has folds to increase surface area, lots of blood vessels
villi
the folds in the s. intestine are called _____
portal
system that deals with getting carbs and amino acids into circulation. Converge and circulate through villi, goes to liver
lymph
system (central lacteal), deals with absorbing fat.
pancreas
digests and regulates secretions in pig
endocrine
releases material into circulatory system, released after a meal or after fasting in pig
insulin
released after a meal, stores energy
glucagon
released after fasting, breaks down energy
exocrine
specifically secretes into tube/duct that takes it to specific location, secretes pancreatic enzyems and NaOH (increases pH) makes it neutral
pepsin
breaks down protein
amylase
breaks down starch
duodenum
secretion site in s. intestine, doesn\\\'t absorb nutrients, from pancreas & gall bladder in pig
jejunum and lleum
2 major sites of nutrient absorbtion, some enzyme secretion in pig
gall bladder
secretes bile salts into duodeum that emulsify fats and aid in fat absorption. important to cholesterol metabolism in pig
cecum
appendix, some fermentation occurs in pigs
colon
(l. intestine) absorbs water, bacteria fermentation of high fiber ingredients, synthesis of B and K vitamins in pig
taste buds
chickens have no _____ (allows us to not make chicken feed taste as good)
crop
esphagus leads to ____ in chickens. moistening reservoir, fermentation, limited enzyme breakdo wn
proventriculus
rapid rate of passage, acid and enzyme secretion. previously in crop.
gizzard
(ventriculus), where most digestion takes place, mixes and grinds for particle size reduction
acid and enzyme digestion takes place.
small intestine
structure and function of it similar to pigs
shorter
poultry have ____ digestive systems than swine
faster
rate of passage is ____ in poultry than in swine
microbial contributions
poultry have smaller capacity in l. intestine so ___ ___ are smaller than in swine.
less
poultry will get ____ calories out of feed than pigs
maltase
enzyme that breaks down maltose into glucose
amylase
substrate of it is carbohydrates (sugar)
pepsin and tripsen
substrate of these two are proteins
lypase
substrate of this is fat
multicompartmental
ruminants have a _____ stomach (divided into 4 parts)
microbial fermentation
__ __ allows cows to digest and use high fiber ingredients
selective eaters
ruminants are known as ____ ____
dental pad
in ruminants, above bottom incisors
saliva
has few enzyms, has an ANTIFOAM
antifoam
prevents bloating
buffered
saliva is highly ____ for maintaining pH
80
stomach of ruminant extends from diaphragm to pelvis, fills ___% of body
rumen
aka paunch, largest part of stomach, fermentation vat
reticulum
honeycomb, no enzyme secretion or acid, *transfers to mouth, rumen, or omasum
hardware disease
___ ___ happens when a piece of metal eaten and logged into reticulum and pushes it through into the diaphram and punctures heart
reticular groove
in calves to help milk escape fermentation, reticulum folds and blocks off rumen
omasum
manyplies, muscular laminae studded with papillae. reduces particle size of digesta water absorption
abomasum
true stomach, acid and enzyme secretion, 1st glandular portion of GT
glandular
means it actually secretes stuff
products of fermentation by microbes
B vitamins synthesis
amino acids and protein synthesis
breakdown of carbs releases volatile fatty acids (VFA)
3 primary VFAs
acetic acid
propionic acid
butyric acid
acetic acid
volatile fatty acid that contains 2 carbons
propionic acid
volatile fatty acid that contains 3 carbons
butyric acid
volatile fatty acid that contains 4 carbons
rumination
evolutionary development allows animal to consume forage rapidly then re-chew at later time
eructation
belching, average gas production 1 l/min for high concentray, 30 l/hr with chopped hay
bloat
if free gas becomes frothy, ___ occurs and can be fatal
hindgut
horses have ____ fermentation
foregut
consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, and s. intestine
30-40
percent that the foregut takes up in a horse
60-70
percent that hindgut takes up in a horse, opposite for a cow
before
cattle fermentation takes place ____ the true stomach so they utilize bacteria as protein source
after
horses fermentation takes place ____ true stomach so bacteria cannot be absorbed from large intestine
hormones
GIT in horses secretes more ___ than any other single organ
gastrin
produced in gastric mucosa cells in hourses, stimulates *acid secretion by stomach (time to eat/digest/absorb)
cholecystokinin
CCK, presence of chyme and acid in duodenum stimulates its secretion
gastric emptying
CCK regulates ____ _____
secretin
inhibits *acid secretion, stimulates bicarbonate production, presence of chyme and acid in duodenum stimulate its secretions
gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
secreted from duodenum in response to high glucose concentrations (AFTER meal)
insulin release
major function of gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
somatostatin
inhibits release of CCK, gastrin, and secretin.
sets things back to starting levels.
ghrelin
produced by special cells in stomach
regulates *Growth Hormone releasement, increases food intake and weight gain