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69 terms

Digestive System

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digestive system
organs that work together to ensure proper digestion and absorption of nutrients
Alimentary canal
the digestive tract as a whole
gastrointestinal tract
principal tubelike structure of the digestive system extending from mouth to anus
ingestion
process of taking food into the mouth
digestion
The process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be absorbed and used by the body cells
motility
a number of GI movements resulting from muscular contraction
mechanical digestion
breakup large chunks of food into smaller bits; chewing (mastication), swallowing (deglutition), and peristalsis
chemical digestion
breaks large molecules into smaller molecules; brought about by digestive enzyme
secretion
release of digestive juices and hormones that facilitate digestion
absorption
movement of digested nutrients into the internal environment of the body
regulation
neural, hormonal, and other mechanisms that regulate digestive activity
lumen
the inside or hollow space within the tube
mucosa
tough and stratified or delicate and simple epithelium that produce mucus
submucosa
connective tissue layer that lies below the mucosa
muscularis
circular, longitudinal, and oblique (in stomach) layers of muscle important in GI motility
peristalsis
wavelike movement in the muscularis that pushes food down the tract
segmentation
back and forth movement in the muscle layer
serosa
serous membrane that covers the outside of abdominal organs
mesentery
attaches the digestive tract to the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity by forming folds
mouth
a hollow chamber with a roof, floor and walls
hard palate
a bony structure of the mouth formed by palatine and maxillary bone
soft palate
soft and consists of muscle found in the rear portion of the mouth
uvula
a cone shape structure hanging down from the center of the soft palate
soft palate and uvula
prevents any food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities
frenulum
a thin membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
tongue division
root, tip and body
tooth division
crown (covered by enamel), neck (surrounds the gum) and root
periodontal membrane
lines each tooth socket and anchors the tooth to the bone
periodontitis
generalized and serious type of inflammation and infection from gingivitis; leading cause of tooth loss among adults
dental caries
a disease of the enamel, dentin, and cementum of teeth that results in the formation of a permanent cavity; tooth decay
types of teeth
incisors (cutting), canines or cuspids (piercing and tearing), premolars or bicuspid, and molars or tricuspid (grinding)
salivary glands
parotid (largest), submandibulars, and sublingual
salivary amylase
digestive enzyme found in the saliva that begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates
pharynx
a tubelike structure made of muscle and lined with mucus membrane; function as respiratory and digestive system; nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
oropharynx
most involved segment in digestive process of swallowing or deglutition
voluntary
regulation of deglutition movement motor cortex
involuntary
regulation of deglutition movement in brainstem
pharynx and esophagus
passageway for food into the stomach
cardiac sphincter
prevents food from reentering the esophagus when stomach contract; also called gastroesophageal sphincter
hiatal hernia
a bulging out of the stomach through the opening of the diaphragm through which the esophagus normally passes; this condition may prevent the cardiac sphincter from closing allowing stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus; condition known as GERD
chyme
partially digested food mixture leaving the stomach
gastric glands
secrete gastric juice and hydrochloric acid into the stomach
rugae
wrinkles or folds in the stomach
stomach division
fundus, body, and pylori
pyloric sphincter
holds the food in the stomach
duodenum
first subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs
small intestine division
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
plicae
multiple circular folds in the small intestine
villi
fingerlike fold covering the plicae; contains lymphatic vessel; absorb carbohydrate and protein
lacteal
lymphatic vessel in villi that absorb lipid or fat materials from chyme
microvilli
epithelial cells that cover villus; increases the surface area of each villus for absorption of nutrients
minor and major duodenal papillae
opening of ducts that empty pancreatic digestive juice and bile from the liver into the small intestine
liver
exocrine gland; secrete bile; largest gland
bile
substance that act as detergent to emulsify fat
gallbladder
concentrates and stores bile
pancreas
exocrine and endocrine glands
large intestine
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal
vermiform appendix
wormlike tubular structure attach to cecum
peritoneum
a large, moist, slippery sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers organ
greater momentum
lace apron, hangs down from lower edge of stomach and transverse colon over intestine
pancreatic amylase
breaks polysaccharide down to monosaccharide
Maltase
changes maltose (malt sugar) to glucose
sucrase
changes sucrose (sugar cane) to glucose
lactase
changes lactose (milk sugar) into glucose
pepsin
gastric juice enzyme that digest protein
trypsin
pancreatic enzyme that digest protein
peptidases
intestinal enzyme; digest protein and convert to amino acid
pancreatic lipase
enzyme that changes emulsified fats into fatty acid and glycerol
fractal geometry
study of fragmented geometric irregular shapes such as those in lining of intestine