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Usually located dorsal and lateral to the distal phalanx.


Located ventral to the distal phalanx, usually flaky.

Foot pads

Provide cushioning and protection for the bones of the foot.Usually thick and composed of keratinized epithelium. Also called 'tori'.

Digital pads

Dogs and cats have digital pads on the palmar and plantar surfaces of the phalanges.

Metacarpal and Metatarsal pads

Singular pads located on the palmar and plantar surfaces of the metacarpal and metatarsal areas, respectively.

Carpal pads

Located on the palmar surface of each carpus. Carpal pads do not bear weight when the animal is standing.

Digitigrade animals

Dogs and Cats are called this because they walk on their toes, with only the digital and metacarpal and metatarsal pads making contact with the ground.


Animals having well-developed foot pads, such as those in primates. Animals that walk with phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals, and carpal and tarsal bones making contact with the ground.

Nails and Claws

Keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx, in dogs and cats.


Sensitive tissue beneath the wall and sole is connective tissue dermis, which contains numerous blood vessels and nerve endings in cats and dogs.


Describes trimming the nail or claw to the level of the dermis and results in bleeding and pain.


Horny covering of the distal phalanx in ungulates or hooved animals. i.e. equine, ruminants, and swine.

Equine Hoof: Coronary Band

Region where hoof meets the skin; The site of hoof wall growth; also called the coronet.

Equine Hoof: Periople

Flaky tissue band located at the junction of the coronary band and the hoof wall and extends distally. The periople widens at the heel to cover the bulbs of the heels.

Equine Hoof: Wall

Epidermal tissue that includes the toe (front), quarters (sides),and heels (back).

Equine Hoof: Bars

Raised V-shaped structure on ventral surface of hoof.
Located on either side of the frog.

Equine Hoof: Sole

Softer hoof tissue located on the ventral surface of the hoof (bottom of the hoof).

Equine Hoof: Frog

V-shaped pad soft horn located in the central region of the ventral hoof surface of equine (between the bars). When weight is put on the frog, blood is forced out of the foot to promote circulation of blood throughout the foot.

Equine Hoof: Bulbs of heel

Upward thickening of the frog above the heels of the wall.


The dermis of the hoof and is located under the epidermal surface of the hoof wall, sole, and frog.


Rudimentary bones.


Vestigial pads in equine. Located on the medial surface of the leg; in the front leg, they are located above the knee, and in the hind leg, located below the hock.


Permanent structures that grow continuously after birth from the frontal skull bones and originate from keratinized epithelium.


The conversion of epithelium into keratin or horn.


Breeds that are naturally hornless.


Not permanent structures and are shed and regrown annually. Grown from the skull.


Initial skin covering on antlers which the animal rubs off after the skin dies, and the bone is then exposed.


Located in a tuft of hair on the fetlock joint.

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