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A 20-dr vial of digitalis contains approximately how many ounces?
How much drug does 100ml of a 10% solution contain?
You're asked to prepare a bottle of heparinized saline with 4iu heparin/ml to flush indwelling catheters. The stock sodium heparin solution contains 1000iu/ml. How much heparin must be added to each 250ml bottle of sterile physiologic saline to make the flushing solution?
You're asked to prepare 20mEq of KCL for addition to a 1L bag of LRS. The solution contains 30mEq/15ml. How much solution should you draw into a syringe to add to the fluid bag?
A growth in the skin is 2 inches in diameter. What is the diameter of the growth in centimeters?
A dosage of 1Tbs every other day requires approximately how many ml for a 2 week supply?
Fenbendazole liquid is available as a 22.2% concentration, & a 45lb German shorthaired pointer needs 50mg/lb. Approximately how many tsp does it require?
You are asked to draw up 2ml of 50% dextrose in water to give to a hypoglycemic kitten. What volume should you draw into the syringe?
A 20kg dog w/ a PCV of 40% has 300ml of blood collected. The RBCs are seperated from the serum. What volume of saline would you add to the RBCs to make a PCV of 50%?
A 500kg horse weighs approximately how many pounds?
If you are asked to administer 0.1mg of epinephrine to an animal w/ threatened cardiac collapse, how much of a 1:10,000 solution should you inject?
A commercial dog food is 420kcal/cup. A dog weighing 60lb fed at a rate of 70kcal/lb/day should be fed how many cups at each meal if fed twice a day?
1 metric ton of livestock feed is equal to how many pounds?
2204 pounds
____are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of much shorter wavelengths.
Short wavelengths have a ____frequency than long wavelengths.
Long wavelengths have a ____ frequency than short wavelengths.
What is the number of cycles of the wave that pass a stationary point per second?
What 3 small particles make up an atom?
protons, electrons, & neutrons
What is the process in which an electron is moved to a higher energy level w/i an atom?
What is the process in which an outer electron is completely removed from the atom so the atom is left positively charged?
milliamperage per second
kilovolatge peak
When it comes to the x-ray tube what does mAs control?
the amount of electrons released

When it comes to the x-ray tube kVp controls what?
the speed of the electrons released

If you need to alter the contrast of a radiographic image, you should change the what?
If you need to alter the density of a radiographic image, you should change what?
What is the formula for mAs?
What is the formula for kVp called?
Sante's Rule
Sante's Rule
2(thickness in cm)+SID+Grid Factor=kVp
Source Image Distance (usually 40cm)
Somatic Damage
damage caused by radiation that happens to the "victim" during their lifetime
Genetic Damage
damage caused by radiation that affects futer generations
Maximum Permissable Dose
What is the MPD for an occupationally exposed person?
What is the MPD for a nonoccupationally exposed person?
What is the device that measures the amount of radiation a staff member receives called?
No body part of a radiographer should be placed in the __________ even when wearing led gloves.
Primary Beam
Secondary radiation is also known as what?
scatter radiation
A grid helps to reduce secondary radiation. A grid should be used for ___cm & above.
When labeling a radiograph, what information should be included?
Patient name, owner made, date, left/right marker, owner name, & clinic or doctor name
What is the TPR of a dog?
T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=10-30/min

Smaller dogs will have faster heartrates than larger dogs.
What is the normal TPR of a cat?
T=100-102.5F, P=120-240/min, R=15-30/min
What is the normal TPR of a horse?
T=99-100.5F, P=30-45/min, R=8-20/min
What is the normal TPR of cattle?
T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=8-20/min
What is the normal TPR of a goat?
T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min
What is the normal TPR of sheep?
T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min
The order is to add 30mEq of KCI to 1500ml od D5W. You have available a solution of KCI 3mEq/ml. How many millimeters of the KCI solution would you add to the bag of D5W?
The order is for atropine0.3mg. You have available atropine 0.5mg/ml How many ml will you administer?
You are to gove penicillin 1.3million units STAT. On hand you have a vial labeled, peninillin 10,000,000 units/10ml. How manyml will you administer?
The order is for ampicillin suspension 275mg every 6hr. You have available ampicillin suspension 50mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?
5.5ml q 6hr
The order is for Clavamox 1g PO q 6hr. You have available Clavamox 500mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?
2tablets q 6hr
The order is for erythromycin 125mg via gastric tube TID. You have available erythromycin 250mg/5ml. How many ml will you deliver?
2.5ml Q 8hr
The order is for unipen 750mg IM q 6hr. The vial reads, Unipen add 4.0ml sterile water to make 1g/2.5ml. How many ml of the reconstituted solution will you administer?
1.87ml IM q 6hr
The order is for Capoten 100mg. You have available Capoten 0.1g tablets. How many tablets will you administer
The order is for diphenhydramine 20mg IM now. You have available diphenhydramine 25mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?
The order is for acepromazine 7.5mg PO BID. You have available acepromazine 5mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?
1.5 tablets BID
The patient is to receive atropine sulfate 0.4mg. The label on the vial of atropine reads 0.2mg/0.5ml. How many ml will you administer?
The order is to administer morphine sulfate 5mg IM q 3hr. Available is morphine sulfate 10mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?
0.5ml IM q 3hr
The order is to administer Phenegran 20mg IM STAT. Available is Phenegran 50mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?
The order is to administer phenylbutazone. Each tablet is 0.5g. How many tableta equal 1500mg?
The order is to administer V-Cillin K 300,000 units by mouth four times a day. Available is V-Cillin K 200,000 units/5ml. How many ml will you administer per dose?
In the heart, depolarization occurs when ________ moves into the cells.
What is the name for the triangular region of the bladder where the ureters and urethra are connected to the bladder?
When looking at the bottom of a horse's hoof, what is the name of the triangular shaped structure behind the sole of the foot?
Where on a primate's body are they tested for tuberculosis?
Through which structures does light pass as it moves from the outside to the inside of the eye?
Cornea, pupil, lens, retina
Erythropoetin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by the:
What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle?
Which type of cell is rich in histamine and heparin?
mast cell
What maintains the membrane potential in excitable cells?
When discussing the equine hoof, which structure produces cells that become the hoof wall?
Coronary band
Chronic exposure to what hormone leads to a pyometra?
Nerve axons which are covered with a white sheath are known as what?
Which bone articulates with the patella?
What structure connects the kidneys to the bladder?
Approximately what percentage of body weight should a horse consume in forage (i.e. hay) per day?
What is the term that describes nerve fibers that carry an impulse TOWARD the brain?
Release of what molecule from the sarcoplasmic reticulum ultimately helps to achieve muscle contraction?
Adenosine triphosphate
What is the name for the muscle group that includes the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius?
What term describes an enlarged thyroid gland?
Which part of the brain coordinates motor activity?
Disease of what part of the brain can cause a hypermetric gait?
Organelles reside in what compartment of the cell?
What is the proper terminology to describe a laceration under the right forelimb paw?
palmer aspect
In what order does an electrical impulse travel through the heart?
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
What is the name for the blood pressure measurement when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed?
Diastolic pressure
The rear end of an animal is referred to as what region?
What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?
Where are the anal sacs located?
Inside the anus at the 4 and 8 o'clock positions
What is the proper order of intestinal segments?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
Which organ is responsible for producing most of the digestive enzymes used to breakdown food?
Where is the thymus located?
In the cranial mediastinum in the chest
What is the term used to describe the junction between the skin and hoof of the horse's distal limb?
The shoulder joint links which two bones?
Scapula and humerus
What is the fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye called?
Aqueous humor
What type of gas is formed due to rumenal fermentation?
What is the average cloacal temperature of a chicken?
The lining of the urinary bladder is composed of what cell type?
Transitional cell
What structure in the eye is responsible for focus?
Impulses are carried away from the neuronal cell body by what structure?
What type of muscle is the heart?
Striated muscle, involuntary
What is the vertebral formula for dogs and cats?
Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacral 3
The dog's abdominal region may also be referred to as what?
ventral region
Which joint allows rotational movement of the head from side to side (from right to left or left to right)?
You are reading a report from an oncologist and read that the popliteal lymph nodes were enlarged. Where are these nodes located?
In the caudal portion of the hindlimbs at the level of the stifle and back of the thigh
When dogs are mating, the male dog "ties" with the female so that the penis cannot be removed from the vagina for a period of time. This is due to the swelling of what structure?
Bulbis glandis
Purkinje fibers are found in what organ?
The correct order of the ruminant digestive system in regards to the chambers of their stomach is:
Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
The pancreas connects to which part of the intestine?
What is the most rostral structure of the eye?
What part of the brain controls heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure?
brain stem
Harderian glands are associated with what part of the anatomy?
Name the heart chamber responsible for pumping blood toward the lungs.
right ventricle
In what part of the intestinal tract is nutrient absorption the greatest?
Parrots have the unique ability to mimic sound. What anatomical structure in birds is responsible for producing sound?
Bacteria differ from animal cells in that they lack what?
a true membrane-bound nucleus
Which cell structure is responsible for producing ATP?
The main stimulus for ventilation is the partial pressure of what gas?
carbon dioxide
Where is the sinoatrial node located?
right atrium
The sacculus rotundus is part of the intestinal anatomy of what species?
Cardiac Output (CO) is determined by what variables?
Stroke volume x Heart rate
Smooth muscle is found in what regions?
Hollow organs
What is the main function of a red blood cell?
Carry oxygen to the tissues
What is the name of the portion of the stomach that attaches to the esophagus?
Ingesta must travel through which opening as it passes through the stomach into the duodenum?
Pyloric sphincter
How can you differentiate a male tortoise from a female?
The plastron is concave in males
When a calf is born, milk goes immediately to the omasum and bypasses the rumen and reticulum. Which anatomic structure makes this possible?
Esophageal groove
What anatomic structure is the passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems?
Chyme is a part of what bodily function?
The bottom of a tortoise shell is called what?
Where is the thyroid gland located?
vetral neck
In small animals, what is the name of the blind-ended pouch that is part of the large intestine and connects the ileum with the colon?
Where would you find the Loop of Henle?
How many lumbar vertebrae do dogs and cats have?
What is an erythrocyte?
red blood cell
The tibiotarsal joint may also be referred to as what?
What neurotransmitter is associated with the sympathetic nervous system?
You are making serial dilutions of a sample in the laboratory. You start by making a 1:5 dilution of a serum sample. You then take this new solution and make a serial 1:5 dilution of it. What is the dilution ratio of this new solution?
A 12-pound cat needs Clavamox drops at 14 mg/kg BID. The solution is 62.5 mg/mL. How many mLs should this cat receive twice daily?
A 20-kg patient is currently receiving 52 ml/hr of Lactated Ringer's Solution. The clinician has requested that 2 mg/kg/day of metoclopramide be added to the bag. Metoclopramide is available as a 5 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters do you need to add to a 1 liter bag?
A dog presents in congestive heart failure. You are asked to administer 2 mg/kg of furosemide IV. The concentration of furosemide is 50 mg/mL. The dog weighs 25 pounds. How many milliliters should you administer to this patient?
Calculate the standard maintenance fluid rate for a 30-pound dog. How many milliliters per hour should the dog receive?
Assuming the daily maintenance fluid requirement is 60 ml/kg/day, how many milliliters per hour should a 4400 lb animal receive per minute to achieve this requirement?
Approximately 80 ml/min
A 120-pound Great Dane has presented with Gastric Dilatation Volvulus. The clinician has asked you to quickly prepare the drug protocol. As a premedication, the dog is to receive 0.08 mg/kg of Hydromorphone. How many milligrams will you administer?
If you have 25% mannitol and you wish to give 500 mg per kg to a 15 kg dog, how much should you give?
How many milliliters of 25% dextrose should be added to 1 L of 0.9% saline to make a 5% dextrose solution?
A patient has come into the hospital after being stung by a bee. The patient's muzzle is severely swollen, and the doctor has ordered a dose of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to be given intravenously. The patient weight is 30 kg, and the dose is 0.5 mg/kg. The concentration of the dexamethasone is 4 mg/ml. How many milliliters is this patient to receive?
How many milliliters of 50% dextrose should be added to one liter of 0.9% saline in order to make it a 2.5% dextrose solution?
The attending veterinarian asks you to administer 120 mg of enrofloxacin (Baytril) IV slow over 20 minutes to a dog that is hospitalized in your clinic. The strength of injectable enrofloxacin is 2.27%, how many milliliters of drug will you administer?
You have a bottle of 50% Dextrose. You are asked to add it to a bag of LRS for a pet in diabetic ketoacidosis to create a 2.5% solution. The pet has 800 mL left in his bag. How much will you add to his bag?
An animal needs to be sedated with Dexmedetomidine. The patient weighs 2200, lbs and the dose that the clinician wishes to administer is 10 micrograms per kilogram. Dexmedetomidine is available as a 1 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters will be administered?
You are performing an ACTH stimulation test. You are instructed to give Cortrosyn at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg IV. The Cortrosyn has been reconstituted to a concentration of 0.25 mg/mL. Your patient weighs 27 pounds. How much Cortrosyn should you administer?
A 12 pound DSH is presented to your hospital for a dental cleaning. The attending veterinarian has asked you to induce the cat with Propofol at a dosage of 4 mg/kg IV. The concentration of Propofol is 10 mg/ml. How many milliliters will you draw up in the syringe?
Approximately how much urine should a 40-pound dog produce in a 24-hour period if the dog is drinking and urinating normal amounts and is not dehydrated?
Between 450 and 850 mL of urine
You are instructed to administer 12 liters of sterile isotonic IV fluids via a fluid pump over the next 24 hours. What is the appropriate fluid rate to administer this volume of IV fluids?
How many milligrams are in 100 ml of a 3% solution?
Thiopental is a barbiturate used to induce anesthesia. Once reconstituted it is a 2% solution. The attending veterinarian asks you to induce a 27 kg dog with a dosage of 10 mg/kg. How many milligrams do you need, and how many milliliters will you draw up into the syringe?
270 mg / 13.5 mls
How many milliliters are in 3 Liters?
You are recovering an 80 pound patient post-op. The surgeon would like you to give a Fentanyl injection prior to starting the constant rate infusion. He asks you to give 4 micrograms per kg IV. Fentanyl concentration is 0.05 mg/mL. What quantity do you administer?
How many liters of 50% dextrose should be added to 5 liters of 0.9% saline to make a 5% dextrose solution?
You are viewing a blood sample in a compound microscope at a 20X objective lens. This microscope (as with most compound microscopes) has an ocular lens that has 10X magnification. What is the total magnification at which you are viewing the sample?
Acepromazine concentration is 10 mg/mL. You are instructed to make a dilute acepromazine solution at 1 mg/mL. Which of the following could be used for how much acepromazine and how much sterile water are mixed to make this concentration?
1 mL acepromazine and 9 mL sterile water
A 50-kg Golden Retriever has presented with extremely pale mucous membranes and is diagnosed with a hemoabdomen. A blood transfusion has been requested, and the doctor would like a 10ml/kg/hr transfusion rate for 4 hours. How many milliliters of blood will you need?
A 5-year old Labrador has developed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The clinician has instructed you to start him on Metronidazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously twice daily. Metronidazole is available in a 5 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters are necessary per dose? The dog's body weight is 80 lbs.
A 60-lb patient is to go home on Clavamox. The dose is 14 mg/kg. What size tablet should the patient be sent home with?
A patient has developed a severe run of ventricular premature contractions. The clinician asks you to immediately pull up a 4 mg/kg dose of lidocaine for to administer intravenously. The lidocaine in the hospital comes in a 2% solution. How many milliliters should you draw up for this 20 kg patient?
What does bog spavin describe?
Tarsocrural effusion
Term that describes variation in cell size
What is a localized accumulation of pus in the body is known as?
In the horse, the condition known as Sweeney is caused by damage to which structure?
Suprascapular nerve
What is the shape of a bacillus such as the bacteria that causes anthrax, Bacillus anthracis?
A dog is going to be euthanized due to aggressive behavior, and the owner wants the dog tested for rabies. The dog has not bitten anyone. What should be submitted?
What term would describe inflammation of the kidneys?
The word "idiopathic" is commonly used in veterinary medicine. What does this word imply?
unknown cause
Which vessel transports blood from the intestines to the liver?
portal vein
The small intestine is made up of four layers. What are these layers from inside to outside?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
A dog sustains a humeral fracture. Which nerve would most likely be damaged?
radial nerve
What is the hinge joint connecting the humerus to the radius and ulna?
Gas exchange occurs between air and blood by diffusion through which structure?
A rabbit presents with a history of sneezing, nasal discharge, and conjunctivitis. The veterinarian suspects the rabbit has a Pasteurella infection, most commonly known as which of the following?
A feline patient presents for onychectomy. What does this entail?
surgical nail removal
A Great Dane is presented for her ovariohysterectomy. The owner would also like to have a procedure done at the same time to secure her stomach to the body wall to prevent her from a gastric dilatation volvulus in the future. What is this procedure called?
What is the proper name for the "third eyelid"?
nictating membrane
The veterinarian is performing an orthopedic exam and says a dog has positive Ortolani sign. What corresponds with this?
hip dysplasia
A dog is having a mass removed from his side. What is the general term for this procedure?
What is the medical term for declawing?
What is the "top" shell of a tortoise called?
Where would you collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a standing sedated horse?
Lumbosacral space
A dog presenting with a head tilt and loss of balance most likely has disease associated with which nerve?
If a disease is zoonotic, what does this imply?
Transmissible from animals to people
Coprophagy is the term used to describe an animal that is doing what?
Eating feces
What is an osteosarcoma?
A malignant bone tumor
Schnauzers are notorious for having hyperlipidemia, and when their blood is spun down, the serum often appears milky. This is due to a high level of what in the serum?
A dog has a high fever, is lethargic, and is diagnosed with peritonitis. What does this dog have?
Inflammation of the internal abdominal lining
Yellow discoloration of the skin, eyes, and mucus membranes
A dog is very weak in the hindend but is able to stand with support. The dog is being supported under the abdomen, and the paws are individually turned over so that the dorsal paw is touching the ground. The dog is not able to correct this posture. This is an evaluation of:
Which syndrome can occur in dogs when long-term corticosteroids such as prednisone are administered?
What is feline "parvo" virus is known as?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
A bird that is laying eggs with thin soft shells likely has:
What is the term used for increased urine output?
What is fluoroscein stain used for?
Look for a corneal ulcer
An owner rushes in with her Labrador retriever who is having non-productive retching, is lethargic, and has a distended abdomen. She wants to know if he has "bloat". Which condition is she concerned about?
Gastric dilation volvulus
If the kidney has a drop in blood flow and a part of the kidney dies, what would this area be termed?
You are checking the fax machine and get a report from the local emergency clinic that a patient from the hospital where you work presented overnight for severe urticaria. What did this patient have?
A puppy presents to your clinic for surgery because he has an intussusception. What happened to the puppy?
Part of his intestine has telescoped inside of itself
What is another common name for herpes infection in psittacine birds?
Pacheco's disease
Where on a primate's body are they tested for tuberculosis?
A male rabbit is also referred to as a ______.
A dog presents with lethargy and coughing. The doctor asks you to take a blood sample to test for Coccidioides immitis, also known as Valley Fever. This disease, most commonly seen in the southwestern United States, is caused by what?
A dog presents dragging the hindlimbs. While the doctor is pinching along the dogs back on either side of the spine, the skin twitches, causing contraction of the cutaneous trunci muscle. Which reflex specifically is being tested?
Panniculus reflex
A poodle is born with no hair. What is a term for no hair?
What is the number one source of spreading nosocomial infections in a hospital setting?
Hands of hospital staff
The menace test will elicit which response?
What two nerves is the menace test testing?
Cranial nerves II and VII
Which species is most susceptible to copper toxicity due to accumulation of copper in the liver from the diet?
A client calls and asks if you could do a necropsy for her pet. What is she asking for?
A post-mortem exam to be performed in an effort to find out the cause of death
Traumatic reticuloperitonitis or pericarditis in cattle is most commonly known as what condition?
hardware disease
A blood smear is evaluated and is noted to have a large variation in cell size as well as a decrease in cell color. What is the appropriate terminology to describe this blood smear?
Anisocytosis and hypochromasia
What is the term used for an elevated number of white blood cells in a urine sample?
You are instructed to give a patient fluids per os. How are these administered?
What device or instrument is typically used to help diagnose glaucoma?
Micturition is a medical term for what?
Ringworm is the common name for what type of organisms?
An owner of a large breed dog calls the clinic and said she just came home from work to find the pantry open and a large portion of the dog food gone. The dog is salivating, dry heaving, and has a distended abdomen. What is a common condition in large breed dogs that can cause these symptoms?
What percentage of mammary gland tumors in the cat are malignant?
approximately 90%
You are assisting with Coggins testing. What does this test for?
Equine Infectious Anemia
The clinical condition of "founder" in the horse refers to what?
Inflammation of the laminae of the equine hoof and subsequent rotation of the third phalanx
What is colic in a horse?
abdominal pain
What clinical signs are associated with infection with Clostridium tetani in the horse?
Hypersensitivity to sound and touch characterized by signs such as muscle spasms (stiff gait) and protrusion of the third eyelid
If an owner is instructed to give a medication "prn", how often should it be given?
as needed
Circling is usually a result of which type of disease?
What is the proper term for when the globe (eye) comes out of the orbit due to trauma?
A 10-year old Golden Retriever presents with a distended abdomen, and when you touch his belly you notice a fluid wave. What is the medical term for free fluid in the abdomen?
Poor flow of bile from the liver to the GI tract
When a tortoise is kept in an indoor enclosure, what is the most important light in that enclosure?
You are on a house call with the veterinarian to evaluate some goats that are having "night blindness" per the owner. Upon arrival you can see that the goats have a dull haircoat, are very thin, and have nasal discharge. What deficiency can cause these symptoms?
Vitamin A
How quickly after birth does a lamb need colostrum to be immunologically protected?
within 1 hour
You are restraining a horse with a harness while the veterinarian is examining a sore on the lateral side of the left pelvic limb. Where should you stand while holding this horse?
On the left side, hold lead rope with little slack
What is the best way to restrain a foal?
Cradle one hand under the neck and grasp the base of the tail with the other hand
You are asked to restrain a dog for a cephalic draw. How are you going to hold the dog?
Sternal recumbancy or sitting position, holding off and stabilizing a forelimb
You are attempting to give an intra-jugular injection to a horse and insert the needle to the hub. Blood is forcefully pulsating and ejecting from the needle. What is the most likely explanation?
You are in the carotid artery
A 14-year old DSH has been prescribed total parenteral nutrition (TPN). What type of catheter would be most appropriate for TPN administration?
Multi-lumen jugular catheter
Socialization plays an important role in companion animal behavior. At what age is it vital that painful and/or traumatic experiences be avoided?
8-10 weeks
During an emergency you are assisting with CPCR. What is the best way listed to administer the drugs (atropine, epinephrine, and lidocaine)? You are unable to place an IV catheter despite multiple attempts.
Which vessel should be avoided when performing venipuncture in pigs?
Auricular vein
A cat is starting weekly subcutaneous fluid administration for renal failure at the clinic where you work. The client asks how long it will take for him to absorb the fluids after they are given. You tell him most cats will absorb the fluid within:
5-8 hours
What is the most common location of an intravenous catheter in the horse?
Jugular vein
What is the best construction form for a tortoise outdoor enclosure?
cement/concrete blocks
How many feline blood types exist?
A 3-year old male neutered Labrador Retriever presents for lethargy and inappetence of a few days in duration. The dog is approximately 7% dehydrated with pale and dry mucous membranes, a capillary refill time > 2 sec, heart rate > 170 bpm and weak femoral pulses. The veterinarian diagnoses the dog with hypovolemic shock and orders isotonic crystalloid fluid therapy. What is the isotonic crystalloid total "shock dose" in dogs?
What is the normal amount of gastric reflux obtained from a healthy horse via nasogastric tube placement?
A pet-sitter is holding a 4-year old male intact Bichon while the veterinarian examines a rash on the dog's abdomen; you are assisting with a skin scraping. The dog reaches back and bites the pet-sitter on the arm. She had insisted on holding the dog for examination despite the posted sign saying "For your safety Please no not ask to restrain your animal". This dog has been known to be aggressive in the past. If the pet-sitter seeks compensation for being bit, who is most likely to be found liable for her injury?
The veterinarian
A client presents with her 8-week old puppy. She wants to know when she can be spayed. What is the ideal recommended age for spays and neuters?
5-6 months is ideal, but it can be done sooner
What represents depolarization from the SA node through the atria on an electrocardiogram (ECG)?
P wave
An owner presents her diabetic cat and new glucometer with lancets. Where is the best place for her to collect a sample?
A dog refuses a rectal temperature. You take his temperature under the axillary region and get a reading of 99.5F. What is likely his core body temperature?
An 11-year old intact male Golden Retriever presents with respiratory distress and a temperature of 106.7 F. The attending veterinarian has gone to talk to the client and has requested that the patient be cooled. To what temperature should the dog be cooled?
What is of the biggest concern when shipping pigs?
You are working in the critical care unit and learning to perform central venous pressure readings. What is a normal CVP reading?
0-10 cm H2O
A patient presents with rodenticide toxicity and is hemorrhaging. The doctor decides the animal needs a transfusion. What blood product is most likely to help stop the patient's bleeding?
Fresh frozen plasma
The owner of an 8-year old German Shepherd dog calls to report that the dog may have ingested an unknown quantity of rat bait 12 hours ago. What would be the best course of action to advise over the phone?
Have the owner bring the dog to the clinic immediately
A parrot presents because it is bleeding profusely from one of its feathers. What would likely be the best course of action to take after examination by the veterinarian?
Pull the feather out
Under which circumstances are pigs most likely to bite each other's tails?
When the facility is over-crowded
A multi-lumen jugular catheter must be placed in a canine with renal disease for CVP monitoring. To what anatomical landmark should the catheter be inserted to?
Third thoracic vertebrae
A 2-year old Dalmatian presents after being hit by a car. Anisocoria is noted during the initial physical examination. What type of trauma would be suspected?
head trauma
Why do you use a heparin flush to flush an IV catheter?
To prevent clot formation in the catheter
What causes Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) in tortoises?
Improper calcium/phosphorus ratio
If a horse receives a cut on the leg from barbed wire and is not vaccinated, what is the protocol for preventing tetanus?
Tetanus antitoxin within 24 hours
A 2-year old male neutered Great Dane presents on emergency with a distended abdomen and a history of unproductive retching. A catheter must be placed to provide immediate fluid therapy. What is the best site for catheterization?
Cephalic vein
Some orphaned kittens are left on the doorstep of the clinic where you work. You volunteer to take care of these kittens. What volume can the stomach of a kitten or puppy hold on average?
A puppy presents for his first distemper-parvo puppy shot. He is currently 8 weeks of age. When should he receive his next set of vaccines?
3 weeks from now
For which very contagious and rapidly fatal disease are ferrets vaccinated against?
Canine distemper
A dog presents with excitability, muscle tremors, and hyperthermia. A blood panel shows hypocalcemia, and the patient is prescribed an intravenous dose of calcium gluconate. What monitoring must be performed during calcium gluconate administration?
You are asked to collect a urine sample for urinalysis on a patient while it is boarding for the week. What would be the best time to collect this sample?
A 12-year old flat coated retriever presents early for an appointment with a 24-hour history of lethargy. The patient is alert and responsive, has very strong pulses, and a heart rate of 160 beats per minute. The veterinarian has just begun a new pet appointment with a long-term client. This patient should be:
Brought into the treatment area and be immediately examined by the veterinarian.
If restrained in a stressful or frightening manner, which species might be prone to seizure?
You are asked to place a nasal oxygen tube in a dog. What is the measurement for placement of nasal oxygen?
Measure to the medial canthus of the eye
What is most commonly used to restrain a horse for basic procedures?
What is the most commonly used location for intravenous catheters in horses?
jugular vein
When a horse is feeling threatened or is resisting restraint, what is its first instinct to do?
run away
You are asked to run an electrocardiogram (ECG) strip on a pet. There are three leads on your machine. One is white, one is black, and one is red. Where should these be placed?
White: right forelimb, black: left forelimb, red: left hindlimb
A 6-year old male domestic short hair presents dyspneic with fluid dripping from both nares. The veterinarian suspects heart failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. What type of injection would most likely immediately be given?
A patient in the hospital has the orders "NPO" on its cage. What does this order mean?
Do not give the patient any food or water.
What is the ideal diet to feed a healthy lactating (nursing) dog?
puppy food
A dog has been brought into your clinic showing stage two signs of rabies. What are the animal's symptoms?
Excitability, viciousness, biting, and snapping
The veterinarian asks you to please administer an FVRCP vaccination to a cat that is boarding. Where should you administer the vaccination?
Subcutaneous on the lateral aspect of a forelimb as distal as possible
You are opening the boxes from today's shipments and find soda lime. What is this used for?
Anesthesia machine
You are at a ranch property and are asked by the vet to tie a horse to a fence. How should the rope be tied?
Leave 3 feet of slack and tie the rope level with the top of the horse's back
What is the best way to administer long-term medications to the eye of a horse with a severe corneal ulcer?
Subpalpebral lavage system
What is the "chief complaint" of a client?
The reason why they brought the pet in
Where would you give a sub Q injection in a snake?
The proximal 1/3 of the snake along the lateral edge of the ventral scales
Generally, how much time do you have before cardiac arrest causes irreversible brain damage?
3 minutes
The main purpose of stimulating the perineal area of puppies and kittens is to:
Stimulate urination and defecation
A 6-year old collie presents after falling out of a moving vehicle. The dog has an open tibial fracture and pulmonary contusions. What would be the best way to immediately stabilize the fracture?
Robert-Jones bandage
A 2-year old cat presents 15 minutes after being attacked by a dog. The cat is in cardiac arrest. The owner wants CPR to be undertaken, and the veterinarian is not currently on the premises. What course of action should be taken?
The cat should be immediately intubated and CPR should commence
What is the most common reason for placing a urinary catheter in a male cat?
Relieve urethral blockage
When handling a raptor, what is the anatomic structure that can cause the most damage to a handler?
You are planning to get some goats out on your ranch property and would like to keep them confined to a certain area to keep the weeds down. How tall of a fence (minimum) would likely be required to keep the goats confined?
When collecting an arterial blood sample, the best location to obtain arterial blood in the standing adult horse is where?
Transverse facial artery
What is the best way to restrain a dog for examination?
One arm under and around the neck and the other under the abdomen and in front of the flank
A canine patient just received open hip reduction surgery. What type of bandage do you use on this limb?
The Ehmer sling
A New Caledonian Giant Gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus) is suffering from dysecdysis. What is the major cause of this abnormality in captivity?
Improper humidity
What type of arrhythmias is common in horses and can be alleviated by exercise?
Second degree AV block
A 1-year old pregnant female bulldog presents with a history of unproductive labor. The dog has not had contractions in several hours, and the veterinarian has requested a chemistry panel. What value would be most important on this panel?
A 10-year old Chow Chow needs a whole blood transfusion due to anemia from chronic renal failure. The patient has received multiple blood transfusions over the last 2 years. What blood tests is needed prior to initiating the transfusion?
Aside from diabetes, what is another cause for glucosuria in a cat?
Which disease does an intradermal caudal skin fold test check for in cattle?
What is the name of the dye commonly applied to the eye to identify a corneal ulcer?
Fluorescein dye
A butterfly catheter is most commonly used to:
Administer an IV injection
A dog has snail bait poisoning (metaldehyde) and presents with seizures. His temperature is 109F, and you begin cooling techniques while the veterinarian treats the seizures. At what temperature should you stop trying to cool him?
What is a frightened sheep most likely to do?
What is the most common lead system used in a horse for electrocardiography (ECG) tracings?
Base-apex lead
You are assisting with exams on 1-week old piglets. What is a proper method of restraint?
Lift the piglet by its rear leg
What is the best type of feeding/drinking bowls to give to patients staying in your hospital?
Stainless Steel Bowls
Hamsters are susceptible to proliferative ileitis. What is the common name for this debilitating disease?
wet tail
Where is the easiest place to take a dog's pulse?
femoral artery
What is the primary defense method for a pig?
A dog is fractious, and you need to draw blood with the dog laying on its side. You cannot access the front end of the dog. Which vein would be the best for collecting a sample?
Lateral saphenous vein
You are working in the ICU; a dog on a high rate of fluids has a very sudden drop in urine production in his urine collection bag. What do you do first?
Flush the urinary catheter with sterile saline
You are helping treat a dog with severe papillomas of the muzzle and oral cavity. This new therapy involves weekly intraperitoneal injections. Where is the safest place to do an intraperitoneal injection?
At the location of the umbilicus, 2 inches right or left of midline
Which structure are you most concerned about when giving an injection in a hindlimb?
Sciatic nerve
What test checks for keratoconjunctivitis sicca?
Schirmer Tear Test
To perform a bile acids test, what is required?
Draw a fasted blood sample, feed the animal, draw another sample 2 hours after feeding
What is the proper way to restrain a rat for routine procedures?
Using two hands, one around the thorax and under the front legs, and one hand grasping the base of the tail.
What is the shock dose of fluids for a cat?
When collecting blood for a blood transfusion, the maximum recommended amount that can be collected from a donor horse (500 kg) is what volume?
The vet thinks there is a fox tail in a dog's ear canal. What instrument will the the doctor need?
When conducting a food trial for possible food allergy manifesting as allergic skin disease, how long as a minimum should the trial last?
3 months
You are assisting with a bone marrow aspirate on a dog with suspected neoplasia. You are asked to make slides to send to the laboratory with the samples the veterinarian is collecting. Describe proper technique for this.
Place a drop on one end of the slide, tilt slightly and make a pull smear
What is the maximum amount of oral fluids that a horse should receive at a time?
Capnography is a means of measuring what?
The amount of carbon dioxide in respiratory gases
How is total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administered?
You are new on the ICU floor and are taking time to look through the crash cart so you will be prepared when emergency arises. You find a 60 cc syringe attached to a 3-way stopcock and extension set with a 22-gauge needle attached. What might this setup be used for?
What is the primary reason a clinician collects an arterial blood sample (as compared to venous blood sample) when performing a blood gas analysis?
Interested in knowing the oxygenation of the patient
What is the maximum volume that can be injected intramuscularly in the larger muscle groups of an average adult horse?
Where is the best place to give an intramuscular injection in a dog?
Epaxial muscle
An owner has fed her diabetic cat and has given the insulin injection. She calls the clinic because there is a wet spot on the fur where she gave the injection and she doesn't think it went in. What will you advise her to do?
Not re-dose the insulin, just give the next scheduled dose as directed
In cattle, a balling gun is sometimes used for what?
Administering medications
Borrelia burgdorferi is the cause of what disease?
Lyme disease
What organism is verminous arteritis associated with in the horse?
Strongylus vulgaris
What is the most common swine gastrointestinal parasite?
Ascaris suum
In the typical life cycle of the flea (i.e. Ctenocephalides felis), where does the larva pupate and form into the adult flea?
In the environment (off of the host)
What is the most sensitive and preferred test for detecting Giardia?
What is the parasite that causes verminous arteritis of the cranial mesenteric artery in horses?
Strongylus vulgaris
Ticks can serve as vectors to transmit several diseases in animals including Lyme disease. What is the agent that causes Lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What is the vector for transmission of heartworm disease?
You find coccidia (Isospora) on a fecal float for a puppy that presents with mucoid diarrhea with streaks of blood. What medication is used to treat coccidia?
Sulfadimethoxine (Albon)
What is the most commonly used method for fecal parasite testing for dogs and cats?
Zinc sulfate centrifugation
Regarding lice parasites, the biting louse found in canines is known as what?
Trichodectes canis
"Scabies" in dogs generally refers to skin disease caused by which type of organism?
Fasciola hepatica requires which intermediate host?
The term pediculosis indicates a problem with what?
A canine hospitalized following a TPLO surgery unexpectedly cardiac arrests. Endotracheal intubation and chest compressions have been initiated. What two drugs are usually administered FIRST during CPCR?
Atropine and epinephrine
When performing a lameness examination in a horse, perineural anesthesia is used to localize the site of lameness. The most common medication used to perform perineural anesthesia in a horse is what drug?
A dog presents for his first day of heartworm treatment. He tested positive for heartworms last week, and the infection was confirmed by chest radiographs and finding microfilariae in his blood. Which drug will this dog receive for killing the heartworms?
Melarsomine (Immiticde)
A veterinarian hands you a prescriptions that reads:

Cephalexin 250 mg, SIG: 3 cap PO BID x 14d

What is correct amount of medication to dispense and what directions should be typed on the drug label?
84 capsules (250 mg each) of cephalexin. Give 3 capsules by mouth twice daily for 14 days.
A cat is given dexmedetomidine, and the cat's heart rate has dropped significantly. The veterinarian asks you to give the reversal, which is the following is the appropriate reversal agent?
What medication should be used with caution in cats, as it could cause blindness in some cats?
Phenylpropanolamine is used to treat urinary incontinence in dogs. It can commonly cause which side effect that should be discussed with the owner?
What is the main effect of Dopram (doxopram hydrochloride)?
Stimulates respiration
Which medication given for diarrhea can cause the stools to appear dark in color, like melena?
Pepto Bismol
Which route of drug administration usually allows for the most rapid onset of action?
Telazol is commonly used in veterinary anesthetic immobilizations. Telazol is a combination of which two drugs?
Teletamine and zolazepam
Chronic administration of prednisone to animals can cause an iatrogenic form of what condition?
Cushing's disease
Why are fluoroquinolones are usually avoided when treating young foals?
Adverse effects on the articular cartilage
The medications Mirtazipine and Cyproheptadine can both be used for which purpose?
Appetite stimulation
What is the primary toxic principle in chocolate?
What medication has been associated with esophageal strictures in cats, therefore the liquid preparation is preferred?
A 5-year old feline presents after being hit by a car. The veterinarian wants you to administer mannitol intravenously. For what reason was mannitol chosen as a therapy?
It reduces intracranial pressure
What is the most frequently observed side effect associated with acepromazine use in geldings?
What is the effect of administering a diuretic, such as furosemide?
Increased urine production
Why should an NSAID and a corticosteroid never be given together?
It increases risk of serious GI ulceration
Which organ(s) most commonly break down or process medications and excrete them from the body?
Liver and kidneys
Clomipramine is a veterinary approved drug used most commonly to treat which condition?
Separation anxiety
What drug can be given as a tablet into the conjunctival sac in the eye to induce vomiting?
A 1200-gram bird needs to receive an injection of an antibiotic. The antibiotic dose to be administered is 15 mg/kg. It comes in a 10 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters does this bird need?
It is estimated that blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels become elevated when what percentage of kidney function is lost?
The tooth crown is covered with what?
What is the maximum time that an ultrasonic scaler can be used on a tooth surface?
15 seconds
Which technique is needed to produce quality intra-oral radiographs?
Bisecting angle technique
What is an adult dogs dental formula?
2(3/3I, 1/1C, 4/4P, 2/3M)=42
When discussing teeth, what is the tooth surface closest to the tongue termed?
What nerve block can be used to decrease anesthetic requirements and provide analgesia for a dental extraction of a maxillary tooth?
Infraorbital block
The 4th upper premolars are connected with which structure in dogs?
Maxillary Sinus
What is the dental formula for the adult horse?
Males=2(3/3I, 1/1C, 3-4/3P, 3/3M)=40-42
Females=2(3/3I, 0/0C, 3-4/3P, 3-3M)36-38
Mineralized debris on the tooth surface is known as what?
Periodontal pockets are measured by which dental instrument?
In normal occlusion, what is the proper position of the incisors and canine teeth when the mouth is closed?
Mandibular incisors are palatal to the maxillary incisors, and the mandibular canine is mesial to the maxillary canine
What is the purpose of polishing the teeth after a dental cleaning?
smooth the microscopic defects on the tooth surface
Which species has wolf teeth?
How many upper incisors does a goat have?
What is the dental formula for an adult goat?
2(0/3I, 0/1C, 3/3P, 3/3M)=32
Which is the dental formula for an adult cat?
2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1)= 30
The Triadan numbering system is commonly used in human and veterinary dentistry to specify a tooth. What is the correct number of the permanent right maxillary canine tooth of a dog or cat?
Cats do not have first and second premolars on the mandible. Therefore, what is the number in the Triadan system for the premolar that is closest to the canine on the left mandible?
What personal protective equipment would be required for a dental cleaning?
Mask, eye protection, gloves
What term describes the something that is closer to the root of a tooth relative to another structure?
What procedure performed in horses includes filing and smoothing their teeth?
Accumulations of desquamated cells, food particles, and bacteria along the teeth are known as what?
You perform a dental prophylaxis on a dog that has all of his teeth. How many adult teeth are in the dog's mouth?
Inflammation of the oral mucosal surfaces
A cystogram is a radiographic study performed to identify the position, shape, and lesions involving what structure?
urinary bladder
For a veterinary X-ray technician, what is the maximum permissible dose of radiation they can receive in one year?
50 mSv
A thoracic radiograph should be taken at what time?
Full inspiration
When taking a lateral thoracic radiograph of a dog, where should the field be centered?
3rd rib and the cranial border of the scapula
What is a pneumocystogram?
A radiograph of the bladder taken after having had air injected into it
Where are electrons generated in an x-ray machine?
filament of the cathode
A 7-year old Saint Bernard dog has a lesion of the left distal radius that is highly suspicious for a bone tumor (osteosarcoma). Prior to surgery, a bone scan is ordered and performed. What is the main reason for this study?
To identify possible additional bone lesions (other than the left radius lesion) that may represent bony metastases
What is the metallic element present on radiograph film that turns black when exposed and run through the radiograph development process?
During ultrasound of the bladder, a hyperechoic (white) linear structure is seen against the bladder wall that creates a black shadow obscuring all structures deep to it. What is this structure most likely?
A dorsoproximal-dorsodistal oblique radiograph of the carpus is frequently referred to as what type of radiograph?
Skyline view
You are asked to take a lateral oblique radiograph of a horse's fetlock with a portable x-ray unit. Where will the x-ray unit be and where should the film cassette be
The x-ray beam should come from the more dorsal side of the limb, and the film will be on the more medial aspect of the limb.
What is the function of the screen of an X-ray cassette?
To decrease the exposure necessary to create an image on the film
If a pulmonary metastatic lesion is visible on a right lateral radiograph but not on a left lateral radiograph, where is the lesion most likely to be?
One of the left lung lobes
A 3-year old castrated male Doberman Pinscher comes in to the emergency clinic with signs consistent with gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV). Following standard initial emergency treatment for suspected gastric dilation and volvulus, what imaging procedure would be most helpful in confirming the diagnosis?
Right lateral recumbency abdominal radiograph
In order to prevent distortion on a dental radiograph when parallel technique cannot be used (impossible to position the film parallel to the long axis of the tooth), what technique should be used?
Bisecting angle technique
A dog in respiratory distress should not be placed in which position for radiographs?
What is the most common factor that prevents a diagnostic radiograph in a horse?
You pull a 6 year old film out of a folder to compare to radiographs that you took today. The old film appears to have yellow-brown staining. What is the likely cause of this?
Incomplete drying of the film
When placing craniocaudal radiographs of the stifle joint on a viewer for a veterinarian to evaluate, how should the film be oriented?
The lateral side of the right limb should be to the viewer's left; the lateral side of the left limb should be to the viewer's right.
Many x-ray machines used in veterinary medicine have a 2-part exposure process. The first step involves depressing a button or pushing a pedal half-way to prepare the machine for the exposure and then a second button or fully depressing the pedal to take the exposure. What happens in the x-ray machine when the first step is started?
The anode rotates and the filament is heated
You take and develop an abdominal radiograph of an animal, but the radiograph appears much too light (underexposed) throughout the area of the patient. You increase the exposure (mAs) and the radiograph is still much too light. The portion of the radiograph outside the body of the patient is completely black (exposed). What is the most likely problem?
X-ray energy (kVp) is too high
Linear artifacts on a film are usually due to what?
Abdominal radiographs should be taken at what time?
Full expiration
Ancylostoma causes which zoonotic disease in humans?
Cutaneous larva migrans
Why should atropine, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine receptors, be used cautiously in horses (i.e. what is a major side effect of the drug)?
Excessive use can result in intestinal stasis (colic)
How many milliliters of dextrose should be added to a 60 ml syringe of 0.9% NaCl to make a 2.5% dextrose solution? The patient weighs 20 kg, and the dextrose in the hospital comes in a 50% concentration.
3 ml
Which disease occurs when the body is unable to make or utilize insulin?
Which cranial nerve is known for three major branches?
What is another method, besides drawing from the tail vein, to blood draw in a laboratory rat?
Periorbital plexus
A 12-pound cat has presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and is currently in shock. The doctor orders that a 40 ml/kg bolus of 0.9% saline be administered. How many milliliters will this patient receive
218.18 ml
What is the term for a method of urine collection from a patient in a sterile manner?
Rabbits are prone to hairballs. What is the medical term for a hairball?
What is the average toxic dose of theobromine in dogs?
60-100 mg/kg
Which blood cells play an important role in clotting?
What does Eimeria stiedai cause?
Hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits
A tiny Chihuahua puppy presents for seizures, and the veterinarian suspects the puppy has "water on the brain" due to his enlarged head size. What is the term for this?
How often should an IV peripheral vein catheter be replaced as a standard?
every 3 days/every 72 hrs
A patient with DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) may show abnormal red blood cells called schistocytes. What are schistocytes?
Red blood cell fragments
Drugs that have no accepted medical use, are not considered safe, and have high potential for abuse are the most controlled by the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration). Drugs under this category such as heroin are listed as what type of category?
Schedule I controlled substance
What is a ranula?
Sublingual mucocele
You want to give a 22 pound cat a 5 mg/kg dose of a drug. The drug comes as a 2.5% solution. How many milliliters should you give the cat?
Which vaccination is most commonly given the intranasal route?
The term pseudocyesis means what?
false pregnancy
Anesthetic monitoring of pet patients is one of the most important veterinary technician duties. How often should vitals be checked and recorded?
every 5 mins
What causes cutaneous larval migration in humans?