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A 20-dr vial of digitalis contains approximately how many ounces?


How much drug does 100ml of a 10% solution contain?


You're asked to prepare a bottle of heparinized saline with 4iu heparin/ml to flush indwelling catheters. The stock sodium heparin solution contains 1000iu/ml. How much heparin must be added to each 250ml bottle of sterile physiologic saline to make the flushing solution?


You're asked to prepare 20mEq of KCL for addition to a 1L bag of LRS. The solution contains 30mEq/15ml. How much solution should you draw into a syringe to add to the fluid bag?


A growth in the skin is 2 inches in diameter. What is the diameter of the growth in centimeters?


A dosage of 1Tbs every other day requires approximately how many ml for a 2 week supply?


Fenbendazole liquid is available as a 22.2% concentration, & a 45lb German shorthaired pointer needs 50mg/lb. Approximately how many tsp does it require?


You are asked to draw up 2ml of 50% dextrose in water to give to a hypoglycemic kitten. What volume should you draw into the syringe?


A 20kg dog w/ a PCV of 40% has 300ml of blood collected. The RBCs are seperated from the serum. What volume of saline would you add to the RBCs to make a PCV of 50%?


A 500kg horse weighs approximately how many pounds?


If you are asked to administer 0.1mg of epinephrine to an animal w/ threatened cardiac collapse, how much of a 1:10,000 solution should you inject?


A commercial dog food is 420kcal/cup. A dog weighing 60lb fed at a rate of 70kcal/lb/day should be fed how many cups at each meal if fed twice a day?


1 metric ton of livestock feed is equal to how many pounds?

2204 pounds

____are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of much shorter wavelengths.


Short wavelengths have a ____frequency than long wavelengths.


Long wavelengths have a ____ frequency than short wavelengths.


What is the number of cycles of the wave that pass a stationary point per second?


What 3 small particles make up an atom?

protons, electrons, & neutrons

What is the process in which an electron is moved to a higher energy level w/i an atom?


What is the process in which an outer electron is completely removed from the atom so the atom is left positively charged?



milliamperage per second


kilovolatge peak

When it comes to the x-ray tube what does mAs control?

the amount of electrons released


When it comes to the x-ray tube kVp controls what?

the speed of the electrons released


If you need to alter the contrast of a radiographic image, you should change the what?


If you need to alter the density of a radiographic image, you should change what?


What is the formula for mAs?


What is the formula for kVp called?

Sante's Rule

Sante's Rule

2(thickness in cm)+SID+Grid Factor=kVp


Source Image Distance (usually 40cm)

Somatic Damage

damage caused by radiation that happens to the "victim" during their lifetime

Genetic Damage

damage caused by radiation that affects futer generations


Maximum Permissable Dose

What is the MPD for an occupationally exposed person?


What is the MPD for a nonoccupationally exposed person?


What is the device that measures the amount of radiation a staff member receives called?


No body part of a radiographer should be placed in the __________ even when wearing led gloves.

Primary Beam

Secondary radiation is also known as what?

scatter radiation

A grid helps to reduce secondary radiation. A grid should be used for ___cm & above.


When labeling a radiograph, what information should be included?

Patient name, owner made, date, left/right marker, owner name, & clinic or doctor name

What is the TPR of a dog?

T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=10-30/min

Smaller dogs will have faster heartrates than larger dogs.

What is the normal TPR of a cat?

T=100-102.5F, P=120-240/min, R=15-30/min

What is the normal TPR of a horse?

T=99-100.5F, P=30-45/min, R=8-20/min

What is the normal TPR of cattle?

T=100-102.5F, P=60-80/min, R=8-20/min

What is the normal TPR of a goat?

T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min

What is the normal TPR of sheep?

T=102-104F, P=60-90/min, R=16-24/min

The order is to add 30mEq of KCI to 1500ml od D5W. You have available a solution of KCI 3mEq/ml. How many millimeters of the KCI solution would you add to the bag of D5W?


The order is for atropine0.3mg. You have available atropine 0.5mg/ml How many ml will you administer?


You are to gove penicillin 1.3million units STAT. On hand you have a vial labeled, peninillin 10,000,000 units/10ml. How manyml will you administer?


The order is for ampicillin suspension 275mg every 6hr. You have available ampicillin suspension 50mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?

5.5ml q 6hr

The order is for Clavamox 1g PO q 6hr. You have available Clavamox 500mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?

2tablets q 6hr

The order is for erythromycin 125mg via gastric tube TID. You have available erythromycin 250mg/5ml. How many ml will you deliver?

2.5ml Q 8hr

The order is for unipen 750mg IM q 6hr. The vial reads, Unipen add 4.0ml sterile water to make 1g/2.5ml. How many ml of the reconstituted solution will you administer?

1.87ml IM q 6hr

The order is for Capoten 100mg. You have available Capoten 0.1g tablets. How many tablets will you administer


The order is for diphenhydramine 20mg IM now. You have available diphenhydramine 25mg/ml. How many ml will you administer?


The order is for acepromazine 7.5mg PO BID. You have available acepromazine 5mg tablets. How many tablets will you administer?

1.5 tablets BID

The patient is to receive atropine sulfate 0.4mg. The label on the vial of atropine reads 0.2mg/0.5ml. How many ml will you administer?


The order is to administer morphine sulfate 5mg IM q 3hr. Available is morphine sulfate 10mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?

0.5ml IM q 3hr

The order is to administer Phenegran 20mg IM STAT. Available is Phenegran 50mg/ml. How many ml should you administer?


The order is to administer phenylbutazone. Each tablet is 0.5g. How many tableta equal 1500mg?


The order is to administer V-Cillin K 300,000 units by mouth four times a day. Available is V-Cillin K 200,000 units/5ml. How many ml will you administer per dose?


In the heart, depolarization occurs when ________ moves into the cells.


What is the name for the triangular region of the bladder where the ureters and urethra are connected to the bladder?


When looking at the bottom of a horse's hoof, what is the name of the triangular shaped structure behind the sole of the foot?


Where on a primate's body are they tested for tuberculosis?


Through which structures does light pass as it moves from the outside to the inside of the eye?

Cornea, pupil, lens, retina

Erythropoetin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by the:


What is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle?


Which type of cell is rich in histamine and heparin?

mast cell

What maintains the membrane potential in excitable cells?


When discussing the equine hoof, which structure produces cells that become the hoof wall?

Coronary band

Chronic exposure to what hormone leads to a pyometra?


Nerve axons which are covered with a white sheath are known as what?


Which bone articulates with the patella?


What structure connects the kidneys to the bladder?


Approximately what percentage of body weight should a horse consume in forage (i.e. hay) per day?


What is the term that describes nerve fibers that carry an impulse TOWARD the brain?


Release of what molecule from the sarcoplasmic reticulum ultimately helps to achieve muscle contraction?

Adenosine triphosphate

What is the name for the muscle group that includes the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius?


What term describes an enlarged thyroid gland?


Which part of the brain coordinates motor activity?


Disease of what part of the brain can cause a hypermetric gait?


Organelles reside in what compartment of the cell?


What is the proper terminology to describe a laceration under the right forelimb paw?

palmer aspect

In what order does an electrical impulse travel through the heart?

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?


What is the name for the blood pressure measurement when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed?

Diastolic pressure

The rear end of an animal is referred to as what region?


What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?


Where are the anal sacs located?

Inside the anus at the 4 and 8 o'clock positions

What is the proper order of intestinal segments?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

Which organ is responsible for producing most of the digestive enzymes used to breakdown food?


Where is the thymus located?

In the cranial mediastinum in the chest

What is the term used to describe the junction between the skin and hoof of the horse's distal limb?


The shoulder joint links which two bones?

Scapula and humerus

What is the fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye called?

Aqueous humor

What type of gas is formed due to rumenal fermentation?


What is the average cloacal temperature of a chicken?


The lining of the urinary bladder is composed of what cell type?

Transitional cell

What structure in the eye is responsible for focus?


Impulses are carried away from the neuronal cell body by what structure?


What type of muscle is the heart?

Striated muscle, involuntary

What is the vertebral formula for dogs and cats?

Cervical 7, Thoracic 13, Lumbar 7, Sacral 3

The dog's abdominal region may also be referred to as what?

ventral region

Which joint allows rotational movement of the head from side to side (from right to left or left to right)?


You are reading a report from an oncologist and read that the popliteal lymph nodes were enlarged. Where are these nodes located?

In the caudal portion of the hindlimbs at the level of the stifle and back of the thigh

When dogs are mating, the male dog "ties" with the female so that the penis cannot be removed from the vagina for a period of time. This is due to the swelling of what structure?

Bulbis glandis

Purkinje fibers are found in what organ?


The correct order of the ruminant digestive system in regards to the chambers of their stomach is:

Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum

The pancreas connects to which part of the intestine?


What is the most rostral structure of the eye?


What part of the brain controls heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure?

brain stem

Harderian glands are associated with what part of the anatomy?


Name the heart chamber responsible for pumping blood toward the lungs.

right ventricle

In what part of the intestinal tract is nutrient absorption the greatest?


Parrots have the unique ability to mimic sound. What anatomical structure in birds is responsible for producing sound?


Bacteria differ from animal cells in that they lack what?

a true membrane-bound nucleus

Which cell structure is responsible for producing ATP?


The main stimulus for ventilation is the partial pressure of what gas?

carbon dioxide

Where is the sinoatrial node located?

right atrium

The sacculus rotundus is part of the intestinal anatomy of what species?


Cardiac Output (CO) is determined by what variables?

Stroke volume x Heart rate

Smooth muscle is found in what regions?

Hollow organs

What is the main function of a red blood cell?

Carry oxygen to the tissues

What is the name of the portion of the stomach that attaches to the esophagus?


Ingesta must travel through which opening as it passes through the stomach into the duodenum?

Pyloric sphincter

How can you differentiate a male tortoise from a female?

The plastron is concave in males

When a calf is born, milk goes immediately to the omasum and bypasses the rumen and reticulum. Which anatomic structure makes this possible?

Esophageal groove

What anatomic structure is the passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems?


Chyme is a part of what bodily function?


The bottom of a tortoise shell is called what?


Where is the thyroid gland located?

vetral neck

In small animals, what is the name of the blind-ended pouch that is part of the large intestine and connects the ileum with the colon?


Where would you find the Loop of Henle?


How many lumbar vertebrae do dogs and cats have?


What is an erythrocyte?

red blood cell

The tibiotarsal joint may also be referred to as what?


What neurotransmitter is associated with the sympathetic nervous system?


You are making serial dilutions of a sample in the laboratory. You start by making a 1:5 dilution of a serum sample. You then take this new solution and make a serial 1:5 dilution of it. What is the dilution ratio of this new solution?


A 12-pound cat needs Clavamox drops at 14 mg/kg BID. The solution is 62.5 mg/mL. How many mLs should this cat receive twice daily?


A 20-kg patient is currently receiving 52 ml/hr of Lactated Ringer's Solution. The clinician has requested that 2 mg/kg/day of metoclopramide be added to the bag. Metoclopramide is available as a 5 mg/ml solution. How many milliliters do you need to add to a 1 liter bag?


A dog presents in congestive heart failure. You are asked to administer 2 mg/kg of furosemide IV. The concentration of furosemide is 50 mg/mL. The dog weighs 25 pounds. How many milliliters should you administer to this patient?


Calculate the standard maintenance fluid rate for a 30-pound dog. How many milliliters per hour should the dog receive?


Assuming the daily maintenance fluid requirement is 60 ml/kg/day, how many milliliters per hour should a 4400 lb animal receive per minute to achieve this requirement?

Approximately 80 ml/min

A 120-pound Great Dane has presented with Gastric Dilatation Volvulus. The clinician has asked you to quickly prepare the drug protocol. As a premedication, the dog is to receive 0.08 mg/kg of Hydromorphone. How many milligrams will you administer?


If you have 25% mannitol and you wish to give 500 mg per kg to a 15 kg dog, how much should you give?


How many milliliters of 25% dextrose should be added to 1 L of 0.9% saline to make a 5% dextrose solution?


A patient has come into the hospital after being stung by a bee. The patient's muzzle is severely swollen, and the doctor has ordered a dose of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to be given intravenously. The patient weight is 30 kg, and the dose is 0.5 mg/kg. The concentration of the dexamethasone is 4 mg/ml. How many milliliters is this patient to receive?


How many milliliters of 50% dextrose should be added to one liter of 0.9% saline in order to make it a 2.5% dextrose solution?


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