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Terms in this set (62)
five primary responsibilities of a lifeguard
1. enforcing facility rules and regulations, and education patrons about them
2. monitoring activities in and near the water through patron surveillance
3. recognizing and responding quickly and effectively to all emergencies
4. administering first aid and CPR, included using an ARD, and, if trained, administering emergency oxygen when needed
5. preventing injuries by minimizing or eliminating hazardous situations or behaviors
what are in-service trainings?
regularly scheduled staff meetings and practice sessions that cover lifeguarding info and skills
as a lifeguard how are you part of a team?
lifeguard team - 2 or more lifeguards on duty
safety team - network of people who prevent, prepare or respond to/assist in an emergency
what does eap stand for? what is a lifeguard's role?
Emergency Action Plan. A lifeguard's role is to activate it when in an emergency and follow the written plan.
duty to act
while on the job, you have a legal responsibility to act in an emergency. failure to adhere to this duty could result in legal action
when a guard doesn't stop behaviors that are dangerous, they don't provide proper care, provide inappropriate care, care beyond scope of training
standard of care
one must communicate proper info, recognize one in need of care, attempt to rescue someone in need, provide emergency care, though only in level of training
one must as patron for permission before performing emergency care
to obtain consent:
1. state name
2. state level of training
3. ask if you may help
4. explain that you would like to asses him or her to ind out what you think may be wrong or what you can do to help
5. explain what you plan to do
when is consent implied?
In serious injuries when victim is unable to give consent (intoxicated, nonfatal drowning, confused, unconscious)
refusal of care
some injured or ill people may refuse care, even if they desperately need it. parents also may refuse care for children
when tending to a patron, one may learn about medical history and medications. don't tell!!
once you start care, you may not stop unless EMS personnel or someone with equal or greater training arrives and takes over
what rescue equipment should you always carry?
rescue tube, gloves, and resuscitation mask
what equipment should be easy to reach
backboards, rescue buoys, AED, first aid kit and supplies, resuscitation equipment like BVM's
what does a swimmer look like?
swims normally, doesn't appear distressed
what does a distressed swimmer look like?
head is above water and can call for help. reaches for rescue devices such as pool buoys
active drowning victim
unable to support themselves, head bobbing underwater and arms flailing, can't call for help
passive drowning victim
unconscious, face down at bottom or surface
why must scanning be an active process?
effective scanning requires you to deliberately and actively observe swimmers' behaviors' and look for signals that someone in the water needs help
how to overcome monotony
stay fully engaged, rotate stations and positions, sit upright and forward
how to overcome blind spots
adjust location or stand up, check all potential: under stand or play features
how to overcome distractions
stay focused, no day dreaming/conversations
how to overcome glare
polarized sunglasses, change body and stand position
how to overcome heavy patron loads
stand up, signal for additional assistance
when performing a rescue you:
1. activate EAP
2. enter the water
3. perform the appropriate rescue
4. move the victim to a safe exit point
5. remove the victim from the water and provide emergency as needed
WHAT IS RID FACTOR?
rid factor are the factors that get in the way of making successful rescues:
Recognition (unable to recognized distressed swimmers)
Intrusion (secondary issues)
*Define the FIND model:
how to clearly understand what is involved in a decision.
F=figure out the problem
I=identify possible solutions
N= name the pros & cons for each solution
D=decide which solution is best, then act on it
what do you do if there is an accidental fecal release or vomit in the pool?
direct all patrons to leave the pool. remove as much as you can. don't vacuum.
Why is prolonged breathing dangerous
it can cause hyperventilation
what are msds sheets?
Material Safety Data Sheets. includes all hazardous chemicals located on property, where they are located, has procedures for handling each pool chemical. includes medical follow up.
7 possible causes of a head, neck, or back injury
entering the water from a height
entering head-first into shallow water
striking a submerged or floating object
colliding with another swimmer
striking the water with high impact
falling from greater than standing height
signs of a head neck or spine injury?
blood or other fluids in the ears/nose, heavy external breathing, impaired breathing or vision, changes in LOC, bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears, seizures, unusual bumps, bruises or depressions on the head/neck/back
caring for head neck and back injuries
1. activate eap
2. enter the water using slide in
3. perform rescue providing in line stabilization
4. move victim to safety. in deep water, move victim to shallow water if possible
5. check for pulse and breathing
if breathing, proceed to back boarding procedure.
if not breathing, immediately remove from the water and perform resuscitative care.
6. strap the victim on backboard in the order of chest, hips and legs.
7. provide emergency care as needed. minimize shock and if the victim vomits, tilt the backboard on one side to help clear the vomit from the victim's mouth
move arm up near head
move other arm to side
tilt body sideways and bend knees
move the arm down for more stabilization
what are bloodborne pathogens
includes bacteria and viruses - present in blood and body fluids and can cause disease to humans
as a lifeguard, how can you protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens?
- proper equipment cleanup
- use personal protective equipment (ppe) such as gloves
- good hand hygiene
oh no! emergency! what do you do?!
1. size up scene
2. perform primary assessment
3. call ems
4. perform secondary assessment
why do you size up the scene?
you need to determine if the scene is safe for everyone. looking for hazards such as oil odors, or sights/sounds, cause of injury, number of those injured
example of unsafe scene
an explosion goes off because of a gas leak
PRIMARY ASSESSMENT (to identify life threatening conditions)
1. check for responsiveness (tap and yell)
2. check for breathing/pulse
-if victim is unconscious and you do not suspect a head, neck or spinal injury, use the head tilt/chin lift technique to open the airway. if you suspect head, neck or spinal injury, use jaw thrust.
-agonal gasps are not breathing (irregular, shallow breaths)
3. check for a cartoid pulse in adult and child (neck.) check for a cartoid pulse in infant (arm.)
4. for a child or an infant, give 2 initial ventilations if the victim is not breathing. for an adult, give 2 initial ventilations only if he or she is not breathing because of drowning or another respiratory cause.
5. scan for severe bleeding
5 reasons to summon ems
- unconsciousness or altered LOC
- breathing problems
- no pulse
- chest pain
- severe burns
when is it appropriate to move a victim?
- if scene becomes unsafe
- unable to provide care in area (ie if person collapsed on table)
- must provide proper care elsewhere
having difficulty breathing
not breathing. rescue breaths.
rescue breathing, performed when a victim is not breathing but has a pulse
adult=1 breath every 5 seconds
child=1 breath eery 3 seconds
infant=1 breath every 3 seconds
after _ minutes of rescue breathing, recheck for breathing and pulse
continue rescue breathing until
-victim begins to breathing
-you are too exhausted to continue
-no pulse! cprrr
conscious choking adult care:
5 back blows followed by 5 abdominal thrusts
conscious choking child care:
5 back blows followed by 5 abdominal thrusts
unconscious choking of adult/child?
1. 30 chest compressions
2. check airway. finger sweep if you see obstructions
3. give 2 ventilations
how many rescuers are needed to operate a bvm?
cardio pulmonary resuscitation. no pulse/no breathing (cardiac arrest)
cardiac chain of survival steps
1. early recognition and ealry access to ems
2. early cpr.
3. earrly defibrillation
4. early advanced medical care
30 chest compressions (2 inches deep) followed by 2 ventilations. hands in middle of chest.
30 chest compressions (1.5 inches deep) followed by 2 ventilations. one hand on forehead and other 3-2 fingers in middle of chest.
adult in secondary assessment
head to toe check
child in secondary assessment
toe to head check
signs and symptoms
pertinent past medical history
last oral intake
events leading up to incidents
sudden illnesses include
- diabetic emergency
- changes in skin color
- loss of vision
- allergic reaction
when caring for musculoskeletal injuries, think RICE.
how do you support a victim having a seizure in a pool?
call ems, support head until seizure ends, remove from water, primary assessment
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lifeguard Red Cross Acronyms
Red Cross Lifeguarding Test
Red Cross Lifeguarding Practice Test
American Red Cross: Lifeguarding Chapters 1-5
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