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spinal cord extends from

brainstem (obex) to conus medullaris (L1,L2) (L2 to be safest)

spinal cord length

2/3rds of vertebral column

where are the 2 bulges in the spinal cord

cervical (brachial, cervical plexuses)
lumbar (lumnbosacracl plexus)
Therefore, more CSF can occur here

3 layers, 3 spaces


UL flexor reflex


UL extensor reflex


LL extensor reflex


LL flexor reflex


Boundaries of the vertebral canal

vertebral body/ disc, pedicle, ______, lamina

Boundaries of the intervertebral foramen


Intervertebral foramen contents

spinal nerve root, dorsal root ganglion, the spinal artery of the segmental artery, communicating veins between the internal and external plexuses, recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nerves, and transforaminal ligaments.

what are the joints between adjacent vertebrae

2 facet joints: superior and inferior
1 symphisis: secondary cartilaginous joint

which ligament attaches transversely from the dens laterally

transverse ligament

nucleus pulposus sits where?

in the center, but slightly posterior

sacral hiatus is at which level

S5 (in between the sacral cornua)
used for nerve blocks

lumbar puncture

through ligamentum flavum

# vertebrae, # spinal nerves

33 vertebrae
31 spinal nerves

specific spinal nerve breakdowns

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

pia mater makes up which two structures

filum terminale
denticulate ligament

Rami communicantes

communicate between spinal cord and autonomics
grey: from ganglia (post ganglionic)
white: to ganglia (preganglionic)

spinal arteries

1 anteiror
2 posterior
(both from vertebrals, posteirors could be from PICA)

segmental/ radicular arteries to spinal arteries come from

ascending cervical aa
posterior intercostal aa
lumbar aa

how much from anterior spinal artery


artery of adamdiewicz

75% arises from the left between T8 and L1, usually via left intercostal artery

dura mater aka:

pachymenix (pachymeninge)

arachnoid and pia mater =


epidural space contains

fat and internal (epidural) vertebral plexus

subarachnoid space containes

CSF, connective tissue, vessels, spinal nerve rootlets

Batson's plexus?

venous plexus in lumbar region that communicates with the venous plexuses in the vertebral column that are valveless
(prostate tumor could metastasize through here)

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