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Concentration Gradient

difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another


Protein that detects signals and acts because of it


movement of molecules from a high concentration to low


diffusion of water molecules


more salt added to water: higher concentration of salt, lower concentration of water.


solution that has the same concentration of solutes that the cell has


solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than a cell. water diffuses out of the cell and shrinks


solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell. water diffuses into the cell and expands.

Facilitated Diffusion

molecules diffuse through transported proteins b/c they can't diffuses through the cell membranes themselves.

Active Transport

uses energy to transport molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration


moves substances out of the cell


cells use energy to transport a materiel that is too large to cross the membrane


cell membrane grows out to surround large particles


jellylike material that contains the building block needed for life

Prokaryotic Cells

small and have no distinct internal parts

Eukaryotic Cells

have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles


a small part that carries out a specific job in a cell


gives cell shape, support, and strength


molecule used in all life function: reproduction, repair, and growth


helps production of proteins and other molecules


link amino acids to form proteins

Golgi Apparatus

changes, packaged, and transports cells to other parts in the cell


carry different molecules to where they are needed


produce chemical energy that can be used by cells


store materials in a cell: water, food molecules, enzymes, and ions


protects a cells by attacking incoming bacteria/viruses


help form cilia and flagella

Cell Wall

supports, shaped, and protects the cell


converts energy from the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis

Cell Membrane

controls what comes into and goes out of the cell


made of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and to fatty acid chains. interact w/ water

selective permeability

allows some material, but not all, to cross the cell membrane

Passive Transport

high concentration to low concentration

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