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Characteristics of a civilization include all of the following except:
an egalitarian form of government
The majority of archaeological studies suggest that life expectancy___ with the development of intensive agriculture
which of the following was not a region in which an ancient agricultural statee flourished
the transition from foraging to food prodcution
leads to higher mortality rates, poorer sanitation, and decreased life expectancies
A number of major innovations took place in agricultural states that were relatively isolated from one another. Innovations such as paper making, guns, and gunpowder, hot air balloons, etc were identified with what part of the world
Large scale ,bureaucratic empires that organized and controlled wide ranging territories included
the Mayan and Aztec empires that ruled over millions of people
High infant mortality rates, the view that children are future assets who can care for their parents in old age, and the benefits associated with child labor all encouraged individuals in agricultural states
have large families
A decentralized form of political economy based on landed estates in which autonomous patrons who owned the land demanded tribute from their serfs is called;
Desprit the domination by the state or landlords, the peasantry developed norms that emphasized community cooperation in production, distribution and consumption. This system involved sharing food and labor with one another in a reciporcal manner to provied a form of social and economic security so that indivudual peasant families would not perish. This system is known as
a moral economy
Individuals who cultivate land for their basic subsistence while paying tribute to a ruling elite aare called
The majority of agricultural states have either patrilineal or bilateral kin groupings, while only about nine percent are matrilineal. One of these matrilineal societies, the ___ had an unusual family structure in which females could enter of marriages but the males did not reside with the women; they were free to join the military. The residential family was composed of a group of sisters, their children, and the women's brothers, who were the resident males of the family.
Bride wealth occurs frequently in horticultural societies, whereas goods and wealth paid by the bride's family to the grooms' family is most common in agricultural states. This type of marital exchange is known as the
From a cross cultural study, jack goody learned that bride wealth occurs more frequently in horticultural societies, whereas the dowry system is most frequently found in agricultural states. He further hypothesized that one function of the dowry system was to
consolidate property in the hands of elite groups, thus increasing their wealth and status.
Since wealth and status determine the type of marriage patterns found in agricultural states, the primary form of marriage for all but the elite was
Monogamy is the primary form of marriage in most agricultural state. The probable reason this pattern is so prevalent is
In agricultural societies, where land is scarce commodity, peasants cannot afford the luxury of polygyny
Divorce was rare in agricultural states because of a number of factors. which of the following is NOT one of the factors discussed in the text?
Divorce was not allowed in many if not all agricultural states because of the emotional disruption it caused to the family members often making them unfit for agricultural labor
In many agricultural states, women were restricted to domestic activities while men were permitted to engage in public endeavors. Women were often not allowed to own property engage in politics or pursue educational goals. the restrictions were reflected in a number of cultural practices such as
purdah and foot binding
Social inequality is exemplified in the ____of India. These social units are endogamous groupings into which a person is born and dies.
Slavery took on different forms depending upon the political economies and demographic features of the agricultural state society. For example, in some African societies slavery corresponded to an open system in which slaves could be incorporated into domestic kin groups and even become upwardly mobile. In contrast closed system of slavery provided no opportunities for upward mobility or incorporation into kin groups. The open system of slavery occurred:
where land was relatively abundant and less populated
The first codified laws originated in the Near Eastern civilization of Babylon. Based on standardized procedures for dealing with civil and criminal offenses, this Babylonian code of law is known as the
code of Hammurabi
Judaism, Christianity, islam, hinduism, and buddhism are considered ____ religions because their spiritual messages apply to all of humanity rather than just heir own cultural history and legacy
state organized rituals that reinforced divine authority of the ruler are known as
rites of legitimation
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