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ss study guide for chapter 5 medieval times

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middle ages
the years between ancient and modern times
feudalism
system of power in Europe during the middle ages, which kings and queens had the most power, followed by nobles, knights, and peasants
vassal
in medieval Europe, a man who promised to be loyal to a landowner, who in return gave him a share of land, also known to be called a fief
manor
large estate, often including a village and farmlands, ruled by a lord in medieval Europe
self-sufficient
able to supply one's own needs
serf
a person who lived on an farmed lord's land in feudal times
clergy
person's ordained to perform a certain religious duties
excommunicate
to expel or prevent someone from taking part in Church life
guild
an association of all the people in a town or village who practiced a certain trade
apprentice
unpaid worker who is being trained in craft
Chivalry
the noble qualities that knights were to have
nation
a community that shares a same government and sometimes a common language and culture
Parliament
a council that advised the English king or queen in government matters
Why did the people of the Middle Ages needed protection ?
They needed to find a way to defend themselves against vikings .
How did the feudal system provide this protection ?
It made people work together so they can protect each other. They promised to protect and in return they got loyalty.
How was work divided among the people who lived in a medieval manor so that they can meet their own needs?
The manor was very important in the feudal system, since the lord depended on the wealth the manor provided.
Describe what the clergy did during the Middle Ages?
It was men who performed the services in the Church, helped people follow Church rules about how to live.
What cause the towns to spring up during the Middle Ages?
People grew wealthier and bought their freedom and made cities.
What role did the Guilds play during the Middle Ages?
Guilds were a market place.
Why did the Church call people to fight in the Crusades?
They wanted to get the Holy Land back.
Why were the merchants interested in the Crusades?
They wanted the trades routs of Africa, Asia, and Europe.
How did the Crusades lead to the weakening of Feudalism?
Land was lost and so many people moved to cities and then the manors lost people and eventually died out.
Why did the kings quarrel with the popes over the appointment of the Church officials?
They wanted the right to be called the name bishops because bishops controlled most of the land.
How did the growing importance of the kings help nations become stronger in Europe during the Middle Ages?
The way they handled money an the land. Kings gained power by the feudal system why it weakens and the government grows stronger.
What were the cause and effects of the crusades?
Cause= so can have the holy land. Effect= the Church lost the holy land
Charlemagne (person)
King of the Franks who conquered much of western Europe, great patron of literature and learning
Urban II (person)
a pope, began the crusades, political power for the papacy
Peter the Hermit (person)
French religous leader who lead on of the bands of the first Crusades
Saladin (person)
Muslims leader who became sultan of Egypt and ultimately defeated the crusades
Richard I (person)
King of England and the leader of the Third Crusade
Gregory VII (person)
pope who rieigned from A.D. 1073-1085, considered one of the greatest papal reforms in the Middle Ages
Edward III (person)
King of England during the Black Death, over saw great social change
Henry IV (person)
King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, argued with pope Gregory and was banned from the Church.
Joan of Arc (person)
A peasant girl who led the French army to victory over the English in the Hundred Years War, Claimed that God Spoke to her and so the people of the town she lived in thought she was a witch
John I (person)
King of England who was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 under the threat of the civil war
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