101 terms

clinical bacteria - identification

First Aid 2012
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peptidoglycan
bacterial structure which stains with crystal violet
peptidoglycan
composed of sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains
cell wall
bacterial component only on Gram positives
cell wall
bacterial component composed of peptidoglycan
cell wall
bacterial component which contains lipoteichoic acid
lipotechoic acid
induces TNF and IL-1
outer membrane
bacterial component only on Gram negatives
outer membrane
site of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)
outer membrane
bacterial structure which contains polysaccharide antigen
outer membrane
bacterial structure which contains lipid A
lipid A
induces TNF and IL-1
periplasm
space between cytoplasmic membrane and thin peptidoglycan wall in Gram negatives
periplasm
bacterial structure which contains beta-lactamases
capsule detected by
Quellung reaction
spore
contains keratin-like coat
spore
contains dipicolinic acid
glycocalyx
bacterial component which mediates adherence to surfaces
Staphylococcus
Gram positive cocci, catalase-positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram positive diplococci, catalase-negative, lancet-shaped, contain IgA protease, encapsulated, optochin-sensitive, alpha-hemolytic
Clostridium
Gram positive, obligate anaerobe, spore-forming
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Gram positive rods with metachromic (blue and red) granules
Bacillus
Gram positive rods, obligate aerobe
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram positive, catalase-positive, facultative intracellular, tumbling motility via "actin rockets"
Mycobacterium
Gram positive (acid fast), facultative intracellular
Actinomyces
Gram positive rods, obligate anaerobe, branching filamentous growth
Nocardia
Gram positive (weakly acid fast) rods, obligate aerobe, branching filamentous growth
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Gram positive, no cell wall, only bacterial membrane containing cholesterol
Neisseria
Gram negative diplococci, oxidase-positive, ferment glucose, produce IgA proteases, facultative intracellular, catalase-positive
Rickettsia
Gram negative, obligate intracellular (need CoA and NAD+), positive Weil-Felix reaction, can dx with latex agglutination assay
Chlamydia
Gram negative, obligate intracellular (cannot make own ATP), cytoplasmic inclusions on Giemsa or fluorescent-antibody stained smear
Mycoplasma
cell membrane contains sterols, no cell wall
Mycobacterium
contains mycolic acid and high lipid content cell wall
Enterics
Gram negative rods which all have O antigen
Borrelia
spirochete, use Giemsa stain or Wright's stain (aniline dyes)
Plasmodium
use Giemsa stain
trypanosomes
use Giemsa stain
Chlamydia
use Giemsa stain
periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS)
used to diagnose Tropheryma whippelii
Ziehl-Neelsen (carbol fuchsin)
used to stain acid-fast organisms
Cryptococcus neoformans
stain with India ink in CSF, stain with mucocarmine in tissue
Fungi
stain with silver
Legionella
stain with silver
Haemophilus influenzae
grow on chocolate agar with factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
grow on Thayer-Martin (VPN) media
Bordetella pertussis
grow on Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
grow on Tellurite plate, Loffler's media
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
grow on Lowenstein-Jensen agar
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
grow on Eaton's agar
Lactose-fermenting enterics form [what on which agar]
pink colonies on MacConkey's agar
E. coli
green colonies with metallic sheen on eosin-methylene blue (EMB) agar
Legionella
grow on charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine and iron
Fungi
grow on Sabouraud's agar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gram negative rod, obligate aerobe, catalase-positive
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Gram positive rod, acid-fast, obligate aerobe
Bacillus anthracis
Gram positive rod, obligate aerobe, spore-forming
Clostridium
Gram positive bacilli, obligate anaerobe, spore-forming
Bacteroides
Gram negative rods, obligate anaerobe, in GI flora
Brucella
Gram negative coccobacilli, non-motile, facultative intracellular
Francisella tularensis
Gram negative, facultative intracellular parasites of macrophages, requires cysteine for growth
Yersinia pestis
Gram negative rod, facultative intracellular, rodent reservoir
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Gram negative rod, encapsulated, can dx with latex agglutination assay, grow on chocolate agar
Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)
Gram positive, encapsulated, bacitracin-resistant, beta-hemolytic
Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococci)
Gram negative coccus, encapsulated, ferment maltose and glucose
Cryptococcus neoformans
encapsulated yeast, urease-positive
Staphylococcus aureus
Gram positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-positive
Serratia
Gram negative rod, catalase-positive, lactose fermenter
Candida
catalase-positive yeast
E. coli
Gram negative, catalase-positive, virulence factors are fimbriae, K capsule, LPS endotoxin
Klebsiella
Gram negative, catalase-positive, urease-positive, abundant polysaccharide capsule, lactose fermenter
Shigella
Gram negative, catalase-positive, cannot ferment lactose, propel themselves within cells using actin polymerization (no flagella)
Salmonella
Gram negative, catalase-positive, cannot ferment lactose, have flagella, facultative intracellular, encapsulated
Enterobacter
Gram negative rod, catalase-positive, lactose fermenter, facultative anaerobe
Citrobacter
Gram negative, coliform, catalase-positive, lactose fermenter, can convert tryptophan to indole, can use malonate
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Gram positive, catalase-positive, club-shaped
Nocardia
Gram positive, catalase-positive, urease-positive, obligate aerobe
Proteus
Gram negative rod, urease-positive, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, nitrase-positive
Ureaplasma
urease-positive
Helicobacter pylori
Gram negative rod, spiral or helix appearance, catalase-positive, urease-positive, creates alkaline environment
mnemonic for urease-positive bugs
PUNCH-KSsSe (Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Cryptococcus, H. pylori, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis)
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Gram positive cocci, urease-positive, novobiocin-resistant
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Gram positive cocci, urease-positive, novobiocin-sensitive
mnemonic for obligate anaerobes
anaerobes Can't Breathe Air (Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces)
mnemonic for obligate aerobes
Nagging Pests Must Breathe air (Nocardia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus)
mnemonic for obligate intracellular
stay inside cells when its Really Cold (Rickettsia, Chlamydia)
mnemonic for facultative intracellular
Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY (Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia pestis)
mnemonic for encapsulated
Some Super Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules (Streptococcus pneumoniae and group B, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans)
mnemonic for catalase-positive
you need SSPACEK for your cats (S. aureus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, Candida, E. coli, Klebsiella)
mnemonic for bugs that don't Gram stain well
These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color (Treponema, Rickettsia, Mycobacteria, Mycoplasma, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia)
Actinomyces israelii
produce yellow "sulfur" granules, composed of mass of filaments and formed in pus
Staphylococcus aureus
produce yellow ("gold") pigment
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
produce blue-green pigment
Serratia marcescens
red ("cherry") pigment
viridans group Streptococci - Streptococcus mutans (dental caries) and Streptococcus sanguis (damaged heart valves)
Gram positive, catalase-negative, alpha-hemolytic, optochin-resistant
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus)
Gram positive, bacitracin-sensitive, detected with ASO titer
Enterococcus (Group D Streptococcus)
Gram positive, can grow in 6.5% NaCl and bile
Campylobacter jejuni
Gram negative, comma- or S-shaped, oxidase-positive, grows at 42 degrees C
Vibrio cholerae
Gram negative, comma-shaped, oxidase-positive, grows in alkaline media
Treponema
spirochete, can be visualized by dark-field microscopy
Leptospira interrogans
spirochete (question-mark shaped)
Gardneralla vaginalis
pleomorphic, Gram-variable rod, visualize clue cells on microscopy
Coxiella burnetii
Gram negative, releases spores, negative Weil-Felix reaction