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American History II Unit 1 Terms
Terms in this set (57)
A doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions of the general population.
The time between the Civil War and World War I during which the U.S. population and economy grew quickly.
Andrew Carnegie//U.S. Steel//Bessemer Process
Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century.// Steel corporation created by Carnegie//The first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace.
John D. Rockefeller//Standard Oil
An American business magnate and philanthropist.//He was a co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
Also known informally as "Commodore Vanderbilt", was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping//An art collector and member of the prominent Vanderbilt family, which had amassed a huge fortune through steamboats, railroads, and various business enterprises.
John P. Morgan
An American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais.
Ellis Island is an island located in Upper New York Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey, United States
Old immigration is defined as the immigration that took place from 1776 to 1890. This period occurred after the Revolutionary War and continued until after the end of the Civil War. Most of these immigrants came from Northern and Western Europe.
These immigrants came to America from areas that had not traditionally supplied settlers to the US. The lands of southern Europe and eastern Europe such as Italy, Russia, Poland and Greece, as well as Asian locales such as China and Japan.
A derogatory term of social criticism originally applied to certain wealthy and powerful 19th-century American businessmen.
Captains of Industry
Some 19th-century industrialists who were called "captains of industry" overlap with those called "robber barons".
Gospel of Wealth
"Wealth", more commonly known as "The Gospel of Wealth", is an article written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Walter Rauschenbusch//Christianity and the Social Crisis
Walter Rauschenbusch was a Christian theologian and Baptist pastor who taught at the Rochester Theological Seminary.//A social commentary by Walter on how religion and modern society can fall away from each other or merge to form a stronger society and a better religion.
A modern name given to various theories of society that emerged in the United Kingdom, North America, and Western Europe in the 1870s, which claim to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics.
Chinese Exclusion Act
A United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
1) A room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.
2) A piece of land held by an owner.
Jane Addams//Hull House
Was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She created the first Hull House.//Was a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr.
An act or instance of officially recalling someone or something.// Make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.// The power or opportunity to act or take charge before others do.
Knights of Labor
The Knights of Labor (K of L), officially Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly.
Sherman Antitrust Act
The first Federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts.
A strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive.
An arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
A relationship whereby property is held by one party for the benefit of another. A trust is created by a settler, who transfers property to a trustee. The trustee holds that property for the trust's beneficiaries.
Tammany Hall//Boss Tweed
A New York City political organization that endured for nearly two centuries. Formed in 1789 in opposition to the Federalist Party, its leadership often mirrored that of the local Democratic Party's executive committee.// often erroneously referred to as William Marcy Tweed, was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall.
Pendleton Civil Reform Act
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403) of United States is a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
Haymarket Square Strike
The Haymarket affair was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
Helen Hunt Jackson//A Century of Dishonor
Helen Maria Hunt Jackson, born Helen Fiske, was an American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.// A Century of Dishonor is a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson first published in 1881 that chronicled the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices.
Jacob Riis//How The Other Half Lives
Jacob August Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer.// How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York was an early publication of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, documenting squalid living conditions in New York City slums in the 1880s.
Lincoln Steffens//Shame of the Cities
Lincoln Joseph Steffens was a New York reporter who launched a series of articles in McClure's that would later be published together in a book titled The Shame of the Cities.// The Shame of the Cities is a book by Lincoln Steffens. Published in 1904, it is a collection of articles which Steffens had written for McClure's Magazine.
Ida Tarbell//History of Standard Oil
Ida Minerva Tarbell was an American teacher, author and journalist. She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.// The History of the Standard Oil Company is a book by journalist Ida Tarbell in 1904.
Ida B. Wells
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, more commonly known as Ida B. Wells, was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist, Geologist, and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
Booker T Washington//Tuskeegee Institute
Booker Taliaferro Washington was an African-American educator, author, orator, and adviser to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community.// Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States. It was established by Booker T. Washington.
WEB DuBois//Niagara Movement
William Edward Burghardt "W. E. B." Du Bois was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor.// A black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a civil rights organization for ethnic minorities in the united States.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association was formed on February 18, 1890 to work for women's suffrage in the United States.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity."
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation was an American woman who was a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol before the advent of Prohibition.
The Elkins Act is a 1903 United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates.
Clayton Antitrust Act
An amendment passed by the U.S. Congress in 1914 that provides further clarification and substance to the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. The Clayton Antitrust Act attempts to prohibit certain actions that lead to anti-competitiveness.
Allows the federal (United States) government to levy (collect) an income tax from all Americans. Income tax allows for the federal government to keep an army, build roads and bridges, enforce laws and carry out other important duties.
The United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
The United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal.
It gave women the right to vote in 1920. You may remember that the 15th amendment made it illegal for the federal or state government to deny any US citizen the right to vote.
The movement of 6 million blacks out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
Name given to US journalists and other writers who exposed corruption in politics and business in the early 20th century. The term was first used by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.
Upton Sinclair//The Jungle
Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. was an American author who wrote nearly 100 books and other works across a number of genres.// The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair. Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities.
Anthracite Coal Mine Strike
A strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Manhattan, New York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in US history.
A nationwide organized effort in the 1910s to bring millions of recent immigrants into the American cultural system.
Meat Inspection Act
The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA) is a United States Congress Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.
Pure Food and Drug Act
An Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.
Federal Reserve Act
An Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
The term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The early progressives rejected Social Darwinism.
Theodore Roosevelt, often referred to as TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
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