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AP Psych Sensation (Mod. 18, 20, 21)
Terms in this set (71)
an energy spectrum that includes X-rays, radar, and radio waves
the color of light as determined by the wavelength of the light energy
= high frequency, bluish colors
= low frequency, reddish colors
the brightness of light as determined by the height of the wave. The taller the wave, the brighter the color.
= bright colors, loud sounds
= dull colors, soft sounds
transform light energy into an electro-chemical neural response
the clear bulge on the front of the eyeball. Begins to focus the light by bending it toward a central focal point. Protects the eye.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye. Regulates the size of the pupil by changing its size-allowing more or less light to enter the eye.
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye. In bright conditions, it gets smaller. In dark conditions, it expands.
a transparent structure behind the pupil; focuses the image on the back of the eye
process of lens thickening/thinning with muscles pulling on it.
misshapen eye causes lens to focus light rays from a distant object in front of the retina. Can see near but not far.
misshapen eye causes lens to focus light rays from near objects past the retina. Can see far but not near.
uneven curvature of the cornea causes multiple focus points/images on the retina resulting in blurry vision
form of farsightedness caused when lens become brittle and inflexible. Usually starts to happen in your early 40s.
light-sensitive surface with cells that convert light energy to nerve impulses. At the back of the eyeball.
the central focal point of the retina. The spot where vision is best. Only cones are found here.
present in every sensory system to change (transduce) some other form of energy into neural impulses. There are two types of these cells.
visual receptor cells located in the retina. Can only detect black and white, and respond to less light. Located around the fovea.
visual receptor cells located in the retina. Can detect sharp images and color, need more light. And are clustered in the fovea.
the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the thalamus then on to the occipital lobes of the brain.
the point at which the optic nerve travels through the retina to exit the eye. There no rods and cones at this point.
cells that form the middle layer in the retina. Gathers information from the rods and cones and pass it on to the ganglion cells.
the top layer of cells in the retina, passes information from the bipolar cells through their axons. Together these cells form the optic nerve.
point in the brain where the optic nerves from each eye meet and partly crossover to opposite sides of the brain.
primary visual pathway
thalamus processes information about form, color, brightness, and depth.
secondary visual pathway
midbrain processes information about the location of an object.
subtractive color mixing
when mixing colored paints, each new color subtracts (soaks up) another wavelength. Red, blue, yellow make black paint.
additive color mixing
when mixing colored lights, each new color adds another wavelength. Red, green, blue combine to make white light.
Trichromatic three-color/Young&Helmholtz theory
theory of color vision that says cones are "tuned" to be sensitive to red, green, and blue light. All the colors we see are a combination of red, green, and blue.
opponent process theory
theory that says color is processed in opponent pairs of color. Red/green, yellow/blue, black/white. Explains afterimages.
a sound's highness or lowness. Dependent on the frequency of the sound wave. Is measured in hertz.
a measure of the number of sound wave peaks per second; measures frequency. Determines the pitch of the sound.
a measure of the height of the sound wave. Determines the loudness or the sound, sometimes called amplitude.
distinctive quality of a sound determined by the complexity of the wave and its difference combinations of frequencies.
the visible portion of the ear that collects and funnels sound waves into the head.
a funnel for bringing in sound, where sound waves enter
the opening through which sound waves travel as they move into the ear for processing.
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
the tissue barrier that transfers sound vibration from the air to the tiny bones of the middle ear.
portion of the ear that amplifies sound waves
3 tiny bones that transfer sound waves from the eardrum to the cochlea. Includes hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
ossicles become brittle or damaged in old age
the point on the surface of the cochlea which receives the sound vibration from the ossicles. As this vibrates, fluid vibrates.
portion of the ear where transduction occurs
a hearing organ where sound waves are changed into neural impulses, the major organ of hearing that has a snail shaped body filled with fluid.
the membrane in which hair cells are located.
the receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea that change sound vibrations into neural impulses. When they move, they trigger action potential.
nerve deafness/sensorineural hearing loss
damage to the hair cells due to prolonged loud noises, which can't be helped by a hearing aid, only cochlear implants.
the nerve that carries sound information from the ears to the thalamus then to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes of the brain. It is stimulated by the hair cells in the basilar membrane of the cochlea.
theory used to explain how you hear low frequencies. Explains that low frequencies vibrate the basilar membrane at the same frequency of the sound wave hitting the oval window.
neural cells alternate firing for higher frequencies
theory used to explain how you hear high frequencies. Explains that different frequencies cause larger vibrations at different locations along the basilar membrane.
coding and auditory masking
low frequency sounds provide better masking than high frequency sounds.
a chemical sense through the nose
olfactory receptor cells
located at the top of each nasal cavity. They wave back and forth, responding to certain molecules and instantly alerting the brain through axon fibers that make up the olfactory nerves.
directly connect to the olfactory bulb at the front of the brain. Neural pathways lead out from here, forming the olfactory tract which connect it to the temporal lobe and to the limbic system. Goes directly to the brain, not to the thalamus.
condition where a person can't smell certain substance or can't smell at all.
a chemical sense that is composed of 5 basic sensations-sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. It is a bottom-up processing.
contain pores that allow chemicals to pass through to the 10-20 taste buds inside them.
the result of sensory interaction. It is formed by a combination of smell, texture, temperature, appearance, and taste. It is a top-down processing.
Paul Ekman's Infant facial expression experiment
explains that body expressions are cultural but facial expressions are biological.
did the taste study, which categorizes different levels of taste-Super tasters, medium tasters, non-tasters.
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts that relies on receptor cells from the muscles and joints.
the system for sensing body orientation and balance. It motivates your head's and body's position and responds to changes in gravity, motion and body position.
located beneath the skin, it converts pressure stimulation into neural messages it sends to the brain.
can be triggered by cold or hot stimulus
only respond to warm stimulus of about 105 degrees Fahrenheit.
a sensory receptor for painful stimuli, it is a type of free nerve ending that detects hurtful temperature, pressure, or chemical
free nerve endings
intense stimuli activates these small-diameter sensory fibers.
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