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This philosopher believed that children are born with a great deal of innate knowledge.


Jean Jacques Rousseau advocated that good parents should

guide children and be responsive to their individual needs

Interest in the well-being of children and their development was spurred on in large part by

the appalling working conditions of child laborers

This scientist generated child development theories based on evolutionary theories.

G. Stanley Hall

Sigmund Freud's groundbreaking theories were based on his assumptions that

early childhood experiences shaped adult behavior patterns

Perhaps the most important objective of modern child development research is

influencing policy

After the birth of his first child, John marvels at how each tiny behavior of his new baby boy generates a response in the hospital nursery. He wonders why the quiet babies who aren't crying don't seem to get fed as often. John's observations seem to support this child development theory.

ethological theory

A ____________ is a time in development when a specific type of learning can most easily take place.

critical period

The superego is said to represent __________ in a child's personality.

the moral agent

Alex is developing a sense that the world is a good and safe place. According to Erikson's sequence of stages, how old is Alex?


When children gain information by merely watching those around them, it is known as

imitation learning

Which of the following accurately describes a major aspect of Piaget's developmental perspective?

children fundamentally revise their perspectives during four major life stages

Lev Vygotsky would emphasize that a fundamental aim of society is to

provide children with enduring cultural skills and values.

The issue which refers to the relatedness of development is


Theorists such as Locke would assert that

children are at the mercy of their environment and experiences

Tina and Tim are young parents with fraternal twins. One baby is content and passive; the other seems quite cranky and always wants to be held. When it comes to their children's personalities, Tina and Tim say

both nature and nurture affected their development

This perspective would see connectedness as dependent upon the nature of environmental influences.

learning perspective

This theory of development is the most reliant upon nature as an influence.

maturational theory

When using systematic observation, researchers must decide which __________ to record.


The difficulty researchers may have when using a sampling with tasks research technique is


On a research project, if Juan uses a physiological measure to determine which classroom settings induce stress in children, what is he likely to do?

measure heart rates

Researchers who are conducting a correlational study are looking at

relationships between variables as they naturally occur

Alan has decided to conduct a field experiment on children and friendships. Which location would produce the most accurate results?

a playground

Research using a cross-sectional design studies

children of different ages at one point in their development.

What research tool was used by researchers Juffer and van IJzendoorn in their study of adopted children?


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