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25 terms

PSY-235 Chapter 1 Chapter Test

STUDY
PLAY
This philosopher believed that children are born with a great deal of innate knowledge.
Plato
Jean Jacques Rousseau advocated that good parents should
guide children and be responsive to their individual needs
Interest in the well-being of children and their development was spurred on in large part by
the appalling working conditions of child laborers
This scientist generated child development theories based on evolutionary theories.
G. Stanley Hall
Sigmund Freud's groundbreaking theories were based on his assumptions that
early childhood experiences shaped adult behavior patterns
Perhaps the most important objective of modern child development research is
influencing policy
After the birth of his first child, John marvels at how each tiny behavior of his new baby boy generates a response in the hospital nursery. He wonders why the quiet babies who aren't crying don't seem to get fed as often. John's observations seem to support this child development theory.
ethological theory
A ____________ is a time in development when a specific type of learning can most easily take place.
critical period
The superego is said to represent __________ in a child's personality.
the moral agent
Alex is developing a sense that the world is a good and safe place. According to Erikson's sequence of stages, how old is Alex?
infant
When children gain information by merely watching those around them, it is known as
imitation learning
Which of the following accurately describes a major aspect of Piaget's developmental perspective?
children fundamentally revise their perspectives during four major life stages
Lev Vygotsky would emphasize that a fundamental aim of society is to
provide children with enduring cultural skills and values.
The issue which refers to the relatedness of development is
continuity-discontinuity
Theorists such as Locke would assert that
children are at the mercy of their environment and experiences
Tina and Tim are young parents with fraternal twins. One baby is content and passive; the other seems quite cranky and always wants to be held. When it comes to their children's personalities, Tina and Tim say
both nature and nurture affected their development
This perspective would see connectedness as dependent upon the nature of environmental influences.
learning perspective
This theory of development is the most reliant upon nature as an influence.
maturational theory
When using systematic observation, researchers must decide which __________ to record.
variable
The difficulty researchers may have when using a sampling with tasks research technique is
validity
On a research project, if Juan uses a physiological measure to determine which classroom settings induce stress in children, what is he likely to do?
measure heart rates
Researchers who are conducting a correlational study are looking at
relationships between variables as they naturally occur
Alan has decided to conduct a field experiment on children and friendships. Which location would produce the most accurate results?
a playground
Research using a cross-sectional design studies
children of different ages at one point in their development.
What research tool was used by researchers Juffer and van IJzendoorn in their study of adopted children?
meta-analysis