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Chapter 21 sections 1 through 4

Robert Bakewell

pioneered selective breeding of livestock. Resulted in increased availablility of meat, wool, leather, soap, and candle tallow


in England in the 1700s, the process of taking over and fencing off public lands

Jethro Tull

Invented the seed drill

James Watt

a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining

Charles Townshend

encouraged farmers to grow turnips which restored exhausted soil

Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.

Robert Fulton

This man invented the first commercially successful steamboat in the United States.

Abraham Darby

Used coal to smelt iron from its ore.


Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them


place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods


British industry that took hold in the earliest stages of the Industrial Revolution

steam locomotive

this invention made the growth of ralroads possible


cheapest fuel used to produce iron


a movement of people to cities


Rioters who fought against the machines that cost them jobs

John Wesley

Founded the Methodist Church


A new religious movement of the mid 1700's


Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole


the industrial working class


economic system designed to end poverty and inequaity


idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

Adam Smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics

Thomas Malthus

Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.

David Ricardo

"iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation


according to Marx this led to division of society and created poverty


People that strived to have an ideal society, where there was a self-sufficient community in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common. There would be no difference between rich and poor.

Michael Faraday

invented the first electric generator

John Stuart Mill

Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain

Jeremy Bentham

Creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."

Robert Owen

a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment

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