pioneered selective breeding of livestock. Resulted in increased availablility of meat, wool, leather, soap, and candle tallow
a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
"iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
People that strived to have an ideal society, where there was a self-sufficient community in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common. There would be no difference between rich and poor.
John Stuart Mill
Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain
Creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."