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30 terms

Chapter 21 The Industrial Revolution

Chapter 21 sections 1 through 4
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Robert Bakewell
pioneered selective breeding of livestock. Resulted in increased availablility of meat, wool, leather, soap, and candle tallow
enclosure
in England in the 1700s, the process of taking over and fencing off public lands
Jethro Tull
Invented the seed drill
James Watt
a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
Charles Townshend
encouraged farmers to grow turnips which restored exhausted soil
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.
Robert Fulton
This man invented the first commercially successful steamboat in the United States.
Abraham Darby
Used coal to smelt iron from its ore.
turnpikes
Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them
factory
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
textiles
British industry that took hold in the earliest stages of the Industrial Revolution
steam locomotive
this invention made the growth of ralroads possible
coal
cheapest fuel used to produce iron
urbanization
a movement of people to cities
Luddites
Rioters who fought against the machines that cost them jobs
John Wesley
Founded the Methodist Church
Methodism
A new religious movement of the mid 1700's
communism
Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
proletariat
the industrial working class
socialism
economic system designed to end poverty and inequaity
utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Adam Smith
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
David Ricardo
"iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
capitaism
according to Marx this led to division of society and created poverty
utopians
People that strived to have an ideal society, where there was a self-sufficient community in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common. There would be no difference between rich and poor.
Michael Faraday
invented the first electric generator
John Stuart Mill
Argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain
Jeremy Bentham
Creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."
Robert Owen
a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment