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Microbiology test questions

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How do we define microorganisms in terms of size?
Cells up to 1mm
How many domains of life are there?
Three
Who proposed the binomial system of classification?
Carolus Linnaeus
Which of the following is a correct example of binomial nomenclature?
Streptococcus pyogenes (italized)
Which is the theory that states all living things are composed of cells?
Cell theory
Which theory opposed the theory of spontaneous generation?
Biogenesis
Who provided a method of demonstrating that a microorganism could be responsible for a particular disease? His/Her name is associated with a series of 'postulates'.
Robert Koch
We generally refer to microorganisms using binomial nomenclature. These names generally have two parts which refer to the..
Genus and Species
What does the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis produce?
Insecticide crystals
What is the smallest unit of matter that enters into a chemical reaction?
Atom
What do elements share when they create a covalent bond?
Electrons
How many atoms are in 1 mole of an element?
6.02 x 10 to the 23rd
What charge is associated with an electron?
negative
Which element has the atomic number 6?
Carbon
Which of these is the result of an interaction between ions?
NaCl
What does the pH scale describe?
How many H30+ ions are in a solution
Which molecules make up proteins?
Amino Acids
How many hydrogen bonds are there between adjacent G and C bases in DNA?
3
Which of these represents an amino (or amine) group?
NH2
In Figure 1 (next page), what is the total magnification of bacteria if you used the 100x objective and eyepiece of 10x?
1000x
The resolution of a light microscope can be improved by changing the...
Wavelength of light
Which microscope would let you best see a 300nm virus?
Electron microscope
In microscopy, what does the abbreviation SEM mean?
Scanning Electron Microscope
1000nm is equal to?
1um
TEM is the correct abbreviation for?
Transmission electron microscope
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Ribosome:energy storage
Look at figure 2, above. This shows the structure of , which is a thin structure lying inside the cell wall and enclosing the cytoplasm of the cell. It consists primarily of phospholipids and proteins
Plasma membrane
Look at figure 2, above. The phospholipid and protein molecules in the structure are not static but move freely in the structure surface. The structure must be as viscous as olive oil, so the proteins can move freely enough to function without destroying the structure. This arrangement of phospholipids and proteins is referred to as the ?
Fluid mosaic model
The , is also known as the capsule, slime layer, or extracellular polysaccharide, is a polysaccharide and/or polypeptide outside the cell
Glycocalyx
In Figure 3, which diagram represents a Gram negative cell wall?
A the one with the smaller peptidoglycan wall
Which number and unit would you associate with prokaryotic ribosomes?
16s
Which of the following is true?
Eukaryotes have histones bound to DNA and bacteria do not
Large molecules cross the cell membrane by?
Active transport
Peptidoglycan is only found in
The cell wall of most Bacteria
Chemotaxis describes the ability of bacteria to do what?
To move along a chemical gradient
Which term would you use to describe a cigar-shaped cell with rounded ends?
Rod
What is the function of flagella in microorganisms?
Motility
What is a major component of the Gram positive cell wall?
Peptidoglycan
The Archae cytoplamic membrane contains:
Isoprenoids
What is catabolism?
The breakdown of organic molecules
What is a competitive inhibitor?
A molecule that competes with the proper substrate for the active site
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate
To what does the 'optimum temperature' of an enzyme refer?
The temperature at which the enzyme functions fastest
When a molecule is oxidized , it...
Loses electrons
Indole is produced by some members of the Enterobacteriaceae when they break down...
Tryptophan
In a microbiological context, what is EPS?
Extracellular Polymetric Substance
What are the four bases (or nucleotides) in a DNA molecule
GCAT
How many ATP molecules are produced in glycolysis?
2
What is made in the ribsomes?
proteins
Gram staining of bacteria enables one to distinguish two kinds of bacterial
cell wall
All prokaryotes lack which of these, if any:
Mitochondria
All life can be classified into these three domains:
Bacteria, Archaea, Eucarya
Bacteria are separated on the basis of the Gram Stain. Which of these is NOT a possible response in Gram Stain?
Sporulated
Stapylococcus aureus, an important member of the human micro biome, forms characteristic morphologies which are:
Yellow colonies, Gram positive 'grape like clusters
Edward Jenner is famous for his work on
smallpox
Which of the following statements about endospores is are true?
Endospore allow a cell to survive poor environmental conditions
Which of these Spirochetes causes syphilis
Treponema pallidum
The three principle stages of cellular respiration are?
Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain (or system)
Which stage of aerobic respiration produces the most ATP?
Electron transport chain (or system)
How many different amino acids occur in nature?
20
In figure 1 (next page), line 'a' points to the microscope's
ocular lens
Who is widely acknowledged for inventing the microscope?
Antonie von Leeuwenhoek
Why are hyperthermophiles limited to the deep sea?
Water there can reach temperatures above 100 C
Where would you expect to find psychophiles?
In sea-ice
How might primitive civilizations have preserved food by a method that relies on osmotic pressure?
Use of high salt concentration
Which group of molecules contains all of the following: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
Proteins
Capnophiles require the presence of high concentrations of which gas:
Carbon Dioxide
In order to grow, Obligate barophiles require at least which one of these:
High pressure
What does the abbreviation EPS mean
Extracelluar Polymetric Substance
Phosphorus is an essential component of which of these molecules:
Nucleic acids
Beijerink, Van Niel and Kluyver belonged to which school:
The delft school
A culture medium...
is a solid or liquid formulation of nutrients to support microbial growth
What is the inoculum?
The sample that is placed into the medium
What is agar?
A polysaccharide derived from a marine alga
What is Peptone
a partially digested protein
How might we remove dissolved 02 from a liquid?
Sparge (bubble) with nitrogen gas, Boil it, Add thioglycolate
A biosafety level 1 laboratory requires:
No special precautions
Selective media...
Allow growth of fewer microbes that would grow on a general medium, Use specific chemical, pH, or salinity, Can be brought pre-prepared or produced in the lab, Are often used in clinical microbiology
In microbiological context, a colony is:
A population of cells arising from a single cell or spore, or from a group of attached cells
In microbiological context, CFU is an abbreviation of:
Colony forming unit
In microbiological context, MPN is an abbreviation of:
Most probable number
Heterotrophic bacterial growth is also described as:
Secondary production
The 'generation time' refers to:
The time required for a cell to divide and the population to numerically double
Lag phase refers to that period when
Cells adjust to a new environment
When measuring bacterial growth, measurement of which of these are directed methods:
Turbidity, Dry weight, Metabolic activity
The plate count is said to measure what?
The number of cells that are 'viable'