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Chapter 25: The Digestive System - The Accessory Digestive Organs
Terms in this set (28)
What are the functions of the liver?
The liver performs metabolic and hematological regulation and produces bile by hepatic cells.
What is the liver's metabolic role?
The liver's metabolic role is to regulate the concentrations of wastes and nutrients in the blood
What is the liver's hematological role?
The liver's hematological role is as a blood reservoir
The classical topographical description of the liver has the organ divided into four lobes
Left, right, quadrate, and caudate.
The gallbladder is located
in a fossa within the posterior surface of the right lobe.
New terminology for the lobular structure for liver has recently been adopted, which is based upon subdivisions of
the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic ducts.
Which arteries supply blood to the liver?
The hepatic artery proper and hepatic portal vein supply blood to the liver.
How does blood return to the systemic circuit from the liver?
Hepatic veins drain blood from the liver and return it to the systemic circuit via
the inferior vena cava.
Liver cells are
specialized epithelial cells, termed hepatocytes.
What are phagocytic cells that reside in the sinusoidal lining of the liver? Kupffer cells, or stellate reticuloendothelial cells
What is the basic functional unit of the liver?
The liver lobule
Each lobule is hexagonal in cross section and contains six
portal areas, or hepatic triads.
A portal area consists of
a branch of hepatic portal vein, a branch of the hepatic artery proper, and a branch of the hepatic (bile) duct.
Bile canaliculi carry bile to
bile ductules that lead to portal areas.
The bile ducts from each lobule unite to form
the left and right hepatic ducts
The left and right hepatic ducts merge to form
the common hepatic duct.
The gallbladder is a hollow muscular organ that stores and concentrates ... before excretion in the ...
Bile, small intestine
What do bile salts do?
Bile salts break apart large drops of lipids and make them accessible to digestive enzymes.
Bile ejection occurs under stimulation of
The gallbladder is divided into
fundus, body, and neck regions.
The cystic duct leads from the gallbladder to merge with the common hepatic duct to form the
common bile duct.
The pancreas is divided into
head, body, and tail regions.
The pancreatic duct penetrates the wall of
Within each lobule, ducts branch repeatedly before ending in
the pancreatic acini (blind pockets).
The accessory pancreatic duct (if present) and pancreatic duct perforate the wall of the duodenum to
discharge pancreatic juice at the lesser duodenal papilla and greater duodenal papilla, respectively.
Pancreatic enzymes include
lipases, carbohydrates, nucleases, and proteolytic enzymes.
The major hormones produced by the endocrine portion are
insulin and glucagon.
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