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27 terms

Chapter 15

Test 4
STUDY
PLAY
Psychoanalysis
Bringing repressed feelings into conscious awareness healing
Aim of Psychoanalysis
Release of energy allocated to id-ego-superego conflicts
Methods of psychoanalysis
Free association, Dream anlaysis
Free Association
Saying aloud whatever comes to mind; pauses reveal points of resistance
Dream analysis
Finding unconscious conflicts by interpreting the censored meaning ("latent content") of dreams
Criticisms of psychoanalysis
Interpretations are highly subjective, tremendously time-consuming
Psychodynamic therapy
deriving from psychoanalytic tradition that view individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
Humanistic Therapies
Emphasis on the importance of self-awareness and self-acceptance, Exploration of CURRENT feelings ( opposite of Freudian exhibit)
Rationale of the preventive mental health viewpoint
o Based on the idea that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence
Antidepressant Drugs
Boost the availability of neurotransmitters that elevate arousal and mood, commonly used to treat anxiety disorders
Antianxiety Drugs
Reduce Central Nervous System activity, often combined with psychotherapy (CBT)
Psychopharmacology
The study of drug effects on mind and behavior
Three Benefits attributed to all psychotherapies
Hope for demoralized people (Escape from learned helplessness), New perspective (New way of seeing oneself & responding to the world), A healthy relationship (Empathy, trust, caring)
Effective for Eating disorders
Family Therapy, CBT
Effective for Anxiety disorders
CBT, Exposure
Effective for Major depression
CBT, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, SSRIs
Meta-analysis
A method for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Effectiveness of psychotherapies
80% of untreated people have poorer outcomes than the average treated person
Clients and clinitans tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy because
"Regression toward the mean" makes therapy appear remarkably effective
Family Therapy
Exposures cultivating both differentiation and connectivity, values the forming of "interpersonal bridges"
Group Therapy
Cheaper than individual therapy, Offers benefits of a social context ( others face similar problems)
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Explores problematic patterns of BOTH thinking and behaving ( purge irrational negative thinking & behave in "mood-incongruent" ways
Cognitive Therapy
Maladaptive thoughts --> maladaptive behaviors; depressogenic thinking
Focus Treatment for Cognitive Therapy
Getting people to think in fresh, more constructive ways; eliminating "catastrophizing beliefs about oneself
Behavior Therapy
Maladaptive behavior --> maladaptive thoughts; maladaptive behavior must be directly confronted
Systematic Desensitization
Carefully controlled, gradual exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli
Aversive conditioning
Creating an aversive response where the absence of one is causing problems