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24 terms

Psychology- Module 2

- Chapter 2 vocabulary
STUDY
PLAY
sample
the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
naturalistic observation
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
case study
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
survey
research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
longitudinal study
research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
cross-sectional study
research method in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
correlation
the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
hypothesis
an educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question
variable
any factor that is capable of change
experimental group
the group to which an independent variable is applied
control group
the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
single-blind experiment
an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
double-blind experiment
an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
placebo effect
a change in a participant's illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect, rather than the actual treatment
statistics
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters
descriptive statistics
the listing and summarizing of data in a practical, efficient way
frequency distribution
an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
normal curve
a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph of normal distribution
central tendency
a number that describes something about the "average" score of a distribution
variance
a measure of difference, or variance
standard deviation
a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
correlation coefficient
describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables
inferential statistics
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance