85 terms

Psychology Midterm

Chapters 1-7
Father of psychology
William Wundt is the father of psychology, he opened the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
is focused on structures of basic elements of mind; associated with Edward Titchener.
how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work and play; associated with Williams James
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only; associated with John B. Watson.
based on the concept of the unconscious; associated with Sigmund Freud.
view that emphasizes human potential and free will; associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
focuses on the biology of underlying our behavior and thoughts associated with
What makes Psychology a science?
bases its answers on observations, measurements experimentation it uses the scientific method to answer questions.
Empirical questions
can be answered and proven based of gathering real life evidence.
List and describe the steps of the scientific method.
Perceive the question- based on your surroundings or experience Form a hypothesis - an educated guess about the explanation for your observations Test the hypothesis-Experiment will be put to test hypothesis Draw conclusions- based on the results of testing your hypothesis you will find whether its supported or not.Report your results so that others can try to replicated repeat the study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results.
Describe the difference between positive and negative correlation.
Positive correlation shows variables related in the same direction, while negative correlation shows variables related in the opposite direction.
When designing an experiment, what is the independent variable and the dependent variable? How do they relate to one another?
The independent variable is manipulated by the experimented and the dependent variable represent the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment. The dependent variable is the result of the independent variable.
What are the two groups in an experiment? How do they differ?
The two groups are experimental and control group; only the experimental group is subjected to the independent variable while the control is the norm.
What are the "Experimental Hazards" discussed in the text? What techniques are used to "control" for these hazards?
The placebo effect and experimented effect are the experimental hazards. Single blind study and double blind stud are used to control these hazards. Single blind study tricks the participant by getting a placebo and the double blind study keeps both the participant and experimenter in the dark.
What is correlation? How is it measured? Why does it not prove causation?
Correlation a measure of the relationship between two variables. It measures two variable they go into a mathematical formula and produce a correlation coefficient. Correlation shows that a relationship between two variables exist it cannot explain the cause of the relationship.
branchlike structure that receive messages from other neurons
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell
tube like structure that carries the neural message to other cells
bundle of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body
fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons to the neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse
Glial cells-
grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow and around deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons clean up waste products and dead neurons influence information procession and during prenatal development influence the generation of new neurons
is chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell.
excitatory or inhibitory involved in memory and controls muscle contractions
excitatory or inhibitory involved in mood sleep and appetite
major inhibitory involved in sleep and inhibits movement
major excitatory involved in learning memory formation and nervous system development
mainly excitatory involved in arousal and mood
excitatory or inhibitory involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure
inhibitor neural regulators involved in pain relief
Describe the major divisions of the nervous system; list the subdivision of the central nervous system.
CNS and PNS. CNS has brain and spinal cord.
Autonomic nervous system
automatically regulated glands internal organ and blood vessels pupil dilation digestion and blood pressure
Somatic nervous system
carries sensory information and controls movement of the skeletal muscles.
division maintains body function under ordinary conditions saves energy.
Sympathetic division
prepares the body to react and expend energy in time of stress.
Describe the function of the endocrine system
Endocrine system secretes chemicals into the blood stream
located at the base of the skull behind the pons and below the main part of the brain controls all involuntary rapid fine motor movement.
located in the controls life sustaining functions such as heart beat breathing swallowing.
located influences sleep dreaming and coordination of movements.
Reticular formation
located in the plays a crucial role in attention and arousal.
Locate and describe the functions of the limbic system.
A group of several brain structures located under the cortex involved in learning emotion memory and motivation
the process that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated allowing various forms of outside stimuli to become neural signs in the brain
the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion
Absolute thresholds
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present
Just noticeable difference
the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time
Sensory adaptation
tendency of sensory receptors cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
discuss the Gestalt principles of perceptual organization
Proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, common region
Size constancy
the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size regardless of its distance
Shape constancy
the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant even when its shape changes on the retina
Brightness constancy
the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change
Define consciousness.
A persons awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at given moment in which is used to organize behavior
circadian rhythm.
A cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24 hour period this means that they will experience several hours of sleep at least once during the 24 hour period
EEGs allows scientist
to see thae brain wave activity as a peson passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered.
Stage one
theta wave activity increases and alpha wave activity fades away
Stage two
sleep spindles brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two, theta waves still predominate this stage
Stage three and four
slowest and largest waves make their appearance they are called delta waves
Freuds interpretation
dreams as wish fullfilment
Manifest content
the actual dream itself
Latent content
true meaning of a dream
Activation synthesis hypothesis
dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of corical cell during rem sleep periods
Psychoactive drugs-
drugs that alter thinking perception and memory
Physical dependence-
condiditon occurring when a persons body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug
Psychological dependence-
the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well being
any relatively permanent change in behavior brought by experience or practice
Classical conditioning-
learning to make an involuntary reflex response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces reflex
a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response
stimulus that has no effect on the desired response
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus
Operant conditioning-
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses
Stimulus generalization-
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
Stimulus discrimination-
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforce
Sensory memory-
capacity is everything that can be seen at one time, duration about half a second, important to keep vision from adapting to a constant stimulus so that what is stared at steadily doesn't disappear
capacity about seven items, duration 12-30 seconds,
duration permamnently, capacity unlimited
Retrieval cue-
stimulus for remembering
the ability to match a piece of information or stimulus to a stored image or fact
Encoding specificity-
tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved.
declarative and procedural memory- under declarative memory is episodic memory and semantic memory
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others
Mental images-
mental representation that stand for objects or events and have a picture like quality
ideas that represent a class or category of objects events or activities
and educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem also known as a rule of thumb
very specific step by step procedures for solving a centain type of problem
Gardner multiple intelligence-
has nine types of inellegence
Sternberg triarchi theory of intelligence-
three kinds of intelligence analytical creative and practical