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Unit IV Ap Human Geo
Terms in this set (70)
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
a politically organized body of people under a single government
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state
Compact state (definition and examples)
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Landlocked states (disadvantages)
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Micro-states (examples and challenges)
states with very small land areas
Stateless nations (examples)
nations without states (Palestinians)
The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.
Boundaries based on mountains, rivers, deserts.
Mountains as boundaries
Sometimes impassable (good in that case)
Water as a boundary
Boundary usually in center of water
Deserts as boundaries
Sometimes impassable (good in that case)
borders based on culture traits, like language and religion
borders based on language
borders based on religion
boundaries that follow regular, geometric patterns
A boundary line established before an area is populated
Boundary line established after an area has been populated that considered the social and cultural characteristics of the area.
Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern.
A political boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape.
territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners
focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary)
definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various ways
neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico)
small country located between two hostile powers and whose presence decreased the possibility of conflict between them
1. Exculsionary- Meant to keep people out 2. Inclsionary- Meant to facillitate trade and movement
A disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession or control of land
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
It is impossible to form a perfect nation-state, only come close
a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity (e.g., US, Germany,...).
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one, Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world./ Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (e.g., Israel or Kashmir today; Eastern Europe during the Cold War,...).
Heartland Theory (1904)
The acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory.
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
Eastern European states under the control of the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Balance of Power
an equilibrium of power between nations
A state, by virtue of its border location between geopolitical power cores, that absorbs and assimilates cultures and traditions of its neighbors without being dominated by them.
Unitary state (adv & dis)
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
An alliance of independent states
national or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated
a seat of government
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Forces that bond a country together.
forces that tend to divide a country.
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
Law of the Sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
the delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government)
Association of three or more states.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Partition of India
The Partition of India is the process that led to the creation, on 14 August 1947 and 15 August 1947, respectively, of the sovereign states of Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and Union of India (later Republic of India) upon the granting of independence from the British Empire, marking the end of the British rule of India.
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
spreads opposition across many districts thinly so that they are the minority
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
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