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Chapter 10 of Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured, the Curriculum book for EMT-B Certification, Tenth Edition


The force or resistance against which the heart pumps.

anaphylactic shock

Severe shock caused by an allergic reaction.


An unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign protein or other substances.


A swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall.

autonomic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating.

cardiogenic shock

Shock caused by inadequate function the heart, or pump failure.

compensated shock

The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss.


Bluish color of the skin resulting from poor oxygenation of the circulating blood.

decompensated shock

The late stage of shock when blood pressure is falling.


Loss of water from the tissues of the body.

distributive shock

A condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both.


The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling of the affected area.


A balance of all systems of the body.


A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius), usually as a result of prolonged exposure to cool or freezing temperatures.

hypovolemic shock

Shock caused by fluid or blood loss.

irreversible shock

The final stage of shock, resulting in death.

myocardial contractility

The ability of the heart to contract.

neurogenic shock

Circulatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in patients with spinal cord injuries.

obstructive shock

Shock that occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.


Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.


The precontraction pressure in the heart as the volume of blood builds up.

psychogenic shock

Shock caused by a sudden temporary reduction in blood supply to the brain that causes fainting (syncope).


Developing a sensitivity to a substance that initially caused no allergic reaction.

septic shock

Shock caused by severe infection, usually a bacterial infection.


A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.


Circular muscles that encircle and, by contracting, constrict a duct, tube, or opening.



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