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129 terms

Module 2, Attention, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory, Learning & Remembering

STUDY
PLAY
Interference Theory 82
Forgetting caused by information getting mixed up by other information
Eidetic Imagery (Memory)
True "photographic" memory; phenomenon where a person can recite a poem they read only ones or re-create an image in minute detail
Proactive Interference (PI) 1
Old material in LTM interferes with remembering new information; example you always part of the same spot, but today you relate so you parked elsewhere. When going home you appear normal spot before you remember the different spot. Episodic memory type of explicit memory; personal memories of events that run like an episode of TV or movie, can include: declarative-memories you can put into words, flashbulb memories-memories were you remember all the details like a picture
Schema
Schemata; variation of elaborative rehearsal; a framework or mental representation of an event, object, situation, person, process, or relationship stored in memory that leads one to expect something; like a stereotype but not, a framework; example a person wearing scrubs in a stethoscope is a ___? schema causes the answer to be a Dr
Elaborative Rehearsal 83
Linking new information with old information; giving meaning to information from STM to transfer it to LTM
Memory 2
The ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagine, or learned; first explored by Hermann Ebbinghaus
Right, Left 3
Spatial working memory tasks typically rely on the ____________ brain hemisphere and verbal working memory tasks typically rely on the ____________ brain hemisphere
Selective Attention 84
The shadowing task is most often used to study __________ ______________
Extinction
The tendency for a hemineglect patient to ignore the contralateral field when a competing stimulus is presented in the ipsilateral field is called
False 4
T or F. Brown and Peterson/Peterson each interpreted their initial data as evidence of interference as the loss mechanism in STM
Mnemonics 5
Memory technique used to increase memory skills
Rote Rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal; method is to expand the length of time information can be held in STM; repeating information over and over (silently or allowed); can be effective for short time and is often effective through automaticity, which is long, hard practice [alpha that it, multiplication tables, music scales]
Tip-Of-The-Tongue Phenomenon (TOT)
In knowing a word, but not able to recall the word; occurs more often with stress or age
LTM 6
Portion of memory that is more or less permanent; everything we know; capacity-Unlimited in time or amount; encoded-needs meaning or framework to transfer from STM to LTM; three types: episodic, semantic, procedural
Sensory Receptors 87
Entry points for raw data that has potential to become a memory; length of stay is only a couple of seconds; unlimited capacity; experiment-George Sterling (1960) shows that echoes (auditory) lasts longer than icons (visual) masking
Explicit Memory 7
LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories
Combination of the Two
Is forgetting is more likely caused by interference or by a combination of the two (decay+interference)
Retroactive Interference (RI) 8
New material interferes with remembering old information already in LTM; everyday occurrence; example learning list of word pairs. A second list uses one of the same words, you want to use the first pair, not the new second pair
Visuospatial Sketchpad 9
First component of working memory. Holds and manipulates visual images and spatial info. Holds info in an analog spatial form while it's being used
Retrieval Cue 88
A stimulus which assists the process of locating and retrieving info stored in memory
Information Processing (IP) 10
Model to explain the way humans create memories; in code, store, and retrieve information like a computer
Atkinson-Schifrin Model 11
Describes human memory as consisting of three distinguishable kinds of memory, each of which representing a stage through which information passes in a sequential way
Method of Loci 89
A mnemonic device which uses a well-learned sequence of locations as a series of cues for the info to be remembered
Recall 12
A measure of LTM which involves the recollection of info w/ few, if any, cues, aids, or hints available which may facilitate retrieval
Central Executive 13
Integrates info from the verbal and visual storage systems, as well as info retrieved from LTM
Retrograde Amnesia
Typically caused by head injury; forgetting what happened shortly before the accident (theory-memories aren't anchored in to LTM)
Semantic Network Theory 14
A theory that describes the organization of info into LTM in terms of overlapping networks/grids of concepts that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links
Explicit Memory 15
LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories
Sensory Receptors 90
Entry points for raw data that has potential to become a memory; length of stay is only a couple of seconds; unlimited capacity; experiment-George Sterling (1960) shows that echoes (auditory) lasts longer than icons (visual) masking
Cued Recall
Providing a cue to assist the retrieval of info
Attention 16
The filtering process one uses for all the data in the sensory registers to determine what is transferred to STM; Cocktail Party Phenomenon-Broadbent-when in a noisy environment, a person pays attention to the conversation they are in, not to others; "On/Off"-Triesman-people turn down the other signals, but not off, so an important signal can leak through
Mnemonics 17
Memory technique used to increase memory skills
Decay Theory 18
Evidence from distracter studies; forgetting is caused by the passage of time; memories deteriorate
Chunking 19
Method of organizing information into easy that meaningful units of information; example-if short-term memory is best for max of 10 items that you must remember 12 numbers group them (junk) into three meaningful groups: 1066 1945 1812 now you have three numbers remember not 12
Declarative Memory (LT) 20
Memory of specific facts and events which can be brought on consciously, it has two sub systems
Procedural Memory 86
Memory that involves skill, example: riding a bike
Mnemonic Devices 21
A technique for enhancing memory from LTM
Explicit Memory 22
LT memories where a person is aware of what they now and can easily describe these memories; are intentionally retrieved; includes semantic in episodic memories
Implicit Memory 23
LT memories where a person is not aware of having nor can they easily describe the memory; not intentionally retrieved; includes procedural and emotional memories
LTM 24
Portion of memory that is more or less permanent; everything we know; capacity-Unlimited in time or amount; encoded-needs meaning or framework to transfer from STM to LTM; three types: episodic, semantic, procedural
Semantic Memory 25
Type of explicit memory; memory that includes facts and concepts: like Encyclopedia; school knowledge
Interference Theory 26
Forgetting caused by information getting mixed up by other information
Retrograde Amnesia
Typically caused by head injury; forgetting what happened shortly before the accident (theory-memories aren't anchored in to LTM)
Encoding, Storage, Retrieval, Sensory, STM, LTM
Name the steps/mechanisms for making a memory
Encoding 91
Step 1 for memory making
Storage 87
Step 2 for memory making
Retrieval 28
Step 3 for memory making
Sensory 27
Step 4 for memory making
STM 29
Step 5 for memory making
LTM 30
Step 6 for memory making
Implicit Memory 31
Characterized by a lack of conscious awareness in the act of recollection
STM 32
The memory system that codes info according to sound and holds about 7 (from 5-9) items for less than 30 seconds w/o rehearsal; also called working memory
Sensory Memory 33
The memory system that holds info from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds
Episodic, Semantic
Remembering the first time you ever saw a kitten would be a(n) ___________ memory; remembering that a kitten is an animal would be a(n) __________ memory
Recall 34
A memory task in which a person must produce required info by searching memory
Retroactive Interference (RI) 35
Learn A-B; Learn A-C; Test A-B
Left, Right 36
Hemineglect often produces disruptions in processing info in the ________ visual field, and is typically caused by _________ hemisphere brain damage
Attention 37
The filtering process one uses for all the data in the sensory registers to determine what is transferred to STM; Cocktail Party Phenomenon-Broadbent-when in a noisy environment, a person pays attention to the conversation they are in, not to others; "On/Off"-Triesman-people turn down the other signals, but not off, so an important signal can leak through
Central Executive 38
Which component of working memory handles reasoning and language comprehension?
STM 39
Called primary memory by William James; stores information taken from sensory registers and works on that information; capacity is 1.5 to 2 seconds, 7-10 items; encoding is completed by maintenance (rote) personal, can be phonetic (verbal) or iconic (visual); can only work on one task at a time sufficiently grasped both tasks are completed inadequately
STM, Weakens
The recency effect is explained by appeal to _________, as inserting a distracter task between study and test _________ this effect
Elaborative Rehearsal
Linking new information with old information; giving meaning to information from STM to transfer it to LTM
Rehearsal Buffer
A mental recycling system for holding information temporarily; Where short term memory is held and then disappears
Working Memory 40
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Articulatory/Phonological Loop 92
The speech and sound related components responsible for rehearsal of verbal information and phonological processing
Acoustic-Articulatory Code 41
A verbally based code (code refers to the way verbal info is stored in short-term memory)
Mnemonic Device 42
A memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something
Visuospatial Sketchpad 43
Processes & temporarily stores visual and spatial information, such as the location and natuer of objects in the environment
Serial Exhaustive Search
(Sternberg) The memory set is scanned one item at a time (serial), and the entire set is scanned on every trail, whether or not a match is found (exhaustive)
Process Model
Describes relationships among processes. Sternberg (1969) proposed a simple flowchart of the four separate mental processes that occurred during the timed portion of very trail
Recency Effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence
Chunking 44
Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units
Serial Position Curve
U-shape pattern indicating the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle
Decay, Interference
Brown and Peterson thought the loss mechanism in STM was _________; whereas later researches argued it was ________________
Proactive Interference (PI) 45
Finding your car in the parking lot today might be difficult if you start walking to where you parked it yesterday. This exemplifies
Working Memory 46
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory
Recoding 47
Re-organizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory
Central Executive 48
In Alan Baddely's model of working memory, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior
Acoustic-Articulatory Code
A verbally based code (code refers to the way verbal info is stored in short-term memory)
Sternberg Task 49
Participants first stored a short list of letters, called the memory set, in short-term memory. They then saw a single letter, the probe, and responded yes/no depending on whether the probe item was among the letters in the memory set
Proactive Interference (PI) 50
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information
Rehearsal Buffer
A mental recycling system for holding information temporarily, Where short term memory is held and then disappear
Decay 51
The weakening and fading of memories with the passage of time. Idea which is widely discredited
Working Memory 52
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory adn visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory
Retroactive Interference (RI) 53
Now information that interferes with remembering old information; backwards-acting interference
Proactive Interference (PI) 54
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the retrieval of new information
Brown-Peterson Task 93
A simple three-letter stimulus was presented to the subject, followed by a three-digit number. Subjects were instructed firt to attend to the stimulus, then to begin counting backward by threes from the number they were shown. This counting was a distracter task designed to prevent rehearsal and prove that forgetting caused by decay
Free Recall 55
Subjects recall the list of items in any order they wish. we often find that people recall items based on their semantic content rather than the item's order in the list. Items at the beginning and end of the list are often recalled with more accuracy than items in the middle of the list
LTM 56
Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Hippocampus 57
Neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
STM 58
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
Working Memory 59
Newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of income auditory and visual-spatial information
Mood-Congruent Memory
Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Automatic Processing 60
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency
Semantic Encoding
Encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Encoding 61
Processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
Retrieval 62
Process of getting information out of memory storage
Chunking 63
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Recall 64
Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Explicit Memory 65
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Rehearsal 66
Conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Retroactive Interference (RI) 67
Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Echoic Memory 68
Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Spacing Effect
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Priming
Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Memory 69
Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Source Amnesia
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
Encoding 70
The process of converting info into a useable form or code that can be stored by the brain and represented in memory
Sternberg Task 71
Memory Set: 6 1 4 9 8. Is the Probe digit, 7, a member of the memory set?
Storage, Storage & Processing
When measuring memory capacity, STM span tasks emphasize _________ and Engle's tasks emphasize __________
True 72
T or F. In Baddeley's model of working memory, the central executive plans future actions and initiates retrieval and decision processes
Maintenance Rehearsal 73
The mental repetition of info over and over again to retain it in STM
Mnemonic Devices 74
A technique for enhancing memory from LTM
Storage 75
Retention of encoded information over time
Visual Encoding
Encoding of picture images
Sensory Memory 76
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Implicit Memory 77
Retention independent of conscious recollection
Repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Recognition 78
Measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
Proactive Interference (PI) 79
Calling your new girlfriend by the name of your old girlfriend
Serial Exhaustive/38
According to Sternberg, memory is scanned in a _________ fashion, at the approximate rate of __________ MS per item
Iconic Memory 80
Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention conscious effort
Acoustic Encoding 96
Encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Relearning 81
Memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Flashbulb Memory 94
Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Serial Position Effect 95
Free recall of items in a list is best for beginning and end & worst for items in the middle of the list