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Two letters that represent one sound. There are consonant digraphs and vowel, ch, th, wh, ew, aw, oo


a special vowel sound in which one of the vowels slides into the other within the same syllable creating a new vowel sound.
oi, oy, ou, ow


two or three letter sequences that are blended together- can still hear the individual phonemes

Examples:br, cr, fr, dr, bl, cl, pl, sl, str, sw, st, sk, ct, ld


the written representation of a phoneme (sound)

Example: the /f/ phoneme can be represented by the graphemes: ph, f, gh


The smallest unit of speech- 1 sound
/t/ in take


a syllable that ends in a vowel sound, typically long
Examples: ma/jor, few, cow, ze/bra


a syllable that ends in a consonant sound
Examples: rake, mean/ing


The consonant g has two sounds. The hard g sounds like gum. Typically found at the end of words and also before a, o, u.

Examples: game, gap, goat, bug


the consonant g has two sounds. The soft g is like /j/. It is typically found followed by the letters e, i, y

Examples: gypsy, gem, giraffe


The consonant c has two sounds. The hard c sounds like cake. It is typically found at the beginning of words and before a, o, u.

Examples: can, cut, cob


the consonant c has two sounds. The soft c sounds like /s/ in civil It is typically found before the letters e and i.

Examples: cent, ceiling, center

R-Controlled Vowel

The r changes the way the vowel before it is pronounced

Examples: bar, fir, her, lure


By syllable, the part of the syllable that is the initial consonant sound
Examples: sun/ onset = s
Slide/ onset = sl


By syllable, the part of the syllable that is composed of the vowel sound and any remaining consonant sounds within that syllable.Examples: tag/ rime= ag
Hat/ rime = at


manipulating phonemes- putting together the individual phonemes to blend and form a word or syllable

Examples: /b/ /i /g/ = big


manipulating phonemes- separating the individual phonemes from within a word or syllable

Examples: part = /p/ /ar/ /t/


the study of the relationship between letters and sounds, just one part of a reading program


a speech sound produced by the passage of air through a relatively open vocal tract

Examples: a, e, i, o, u (sometimes y and w)


a speech sound that constricts the air as it is stopped and released through the vocal tract, teeth mouth, and lips


a unit of pronunciation, each syllable ahs one vowel sound, words can be broken into syllables

Examples: ex/am/ple

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