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takes place in mid-to-late diastole
•AV valves are open
•80% of blood passively flows into ventricles
•Atrial systole occurs, delivering the remaining 20%
Atria relax and ventricles begin to contract
•Rising ventricular pressure results in closing of AV valves
•Isovolumetric contraction phase (all valves are closed)
•In ejection phase, ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in the large arteries, forcing the SL valves open
occurs in early diastole
•Backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes SL valves and causes dicrotic notch (brief rise in aortic pressure)
Cardiac Output (CO)
Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
heart rate (HR) x stroke volume (SV)
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