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Drugs effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasant or even dangerous
name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called a trade name
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
federal agency responsible for the regulation and enforcement of drug evaluation and distribution policies
the original designation that a drug is given when the drug company that developed it applies for the approval process
process of altering DNA, usually of bacteria, to produce a chemical to be used as a drug
drugs that have been discovered but would not be profitable for a drug company to develop; usually drugs that would treat only a small number of people; these orphans can be adopted by drug companies to develop
drugs that are available without a prescription for self-treatment of a variety of complaints; deemed to be safe when used as directed
clinical pharmacology- the branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs; chemicals that are used in medicine for the treatment, prevent, and diagnosis of disease in humans
phase 1 study
a pilot study of a potential drug done with a small number of selected, healthy human volunteers
phase 2 study
a clinical study of a proposed drug by selected physicians using actual patients who have the disorder the drug is designed to treat; patients must provide informed consent
phase 3 study
use of a proposed drug on a wide scale in the clinical setting with patients who have the disease the drug is thought to treat
initial trial of a chemical thought to have therapeutic potential; uses laboratory animals, not human subjects
what happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid; intravenous administration causes the drug to directly enter the circulating blood, bypassing the many complication of absorption from other routes
the movement of substances across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; this process requires the use of energy biotransformation
synthetic chemicals used to interfere with the functioning of foreign cell populations; this term is frequently used to refer to the drug therapy of neoplasm, but it also refers to drug therapy affecting any foreign cell
the concentration a drug must reach in the tissues that respond to the particular drug to cause the desired effect
movement of a drug to body tissues; the places where a drug may be distributed depend on the drug's solubility, perfusion of the area, cardiac output, and binding of the drug to plasma proteins
process by which the presenceof a chemical that is biotransformed by a particular enzyme system in the liver causes increased activity of that enzyme system
removal of a drug from the body; primarily occurs in the kidneys, but can also occur through the skin, lungs, bile, or feces
a phenomenon in which drugs given orally are carried directly to the liver after absorption, where they may be largely inactivated by liver enzymes before they can enter the general circulation; oral drugs frequently are given in higher doses than drugs given by other routes because of this early breakdown
the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule
the time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half of the peak level it previously acheived
Hepatic microsomal system
liver enzymes tightly packed together in the hepatic intracellular structure, responsible for the biotransformation of chemicals, including drugs
use of a higher does than that which is usually used for treatment to allow the drug to reach the critical concentration sooner
movement of substances across a semipermeable membrane with the concentration gradient; this process does not require energy
the science that deals with the interactions between the chemical components of living systems and the foreign chemicals, including drugs, that enter living organisms; the way a drug affects a body
the way the body deals with a drug, including absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion
documented effect of the mind on drug therapy; if a person percieves that a drug will be effective, the drug is much more likely to actually be effective
specific areas on cell membranes that react with certain chemicals to cause an effect within the cell
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