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Psychology Ch. 9
Terms in this set (39)
movere; to move
The words emotion and motivation come from the same Latin word _____ meaning ______
energize; direct; sustain
Motivation is made of factors of differing strength that ________, ______, and _______ behavior
A state of biological or social deficiency
satisfaction of needs; drive reduction; incentives; optimal level of arousal; pleasure principle
What are five factors that influence motivation?
An arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs
physiological; safety; belonging and love; esteem; self-actualization
What are the five needs in Maslow's hierarchy, from highest to lowest priority?
A psychological state that, by creating arousal, motivates an organism to engage in a behavior to satisfy a need
Basic biological ______, such as thirst or hunger, help maintain a stable condition. A stable condition is also called ______________
External objects or external goals, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors
Physiological activation (such as increased brain activity) or increased autonomic responses (such as increased heart rate, sweating, or muscle tension)
Everyone is motivated to engage in behaviors based on their own ________ level of arousal
This describes the relationship between arousal, motivation, and performance
This law states that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point. After that point, more arousal will result in decreasing performance. A graph of this relationship is shaped like an upside-down U.
Sigmund Freud proposed that needs are satisfied based on the _____ _______.
According to _______, the pleasure principle motivates people to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
A desire to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed
A desire to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose
Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs
Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that are shared across cultures and associated with specific physical states; they include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, and surprise
(possibly contempt also)
Blends of primary emotions; they include remorse, guilt, shame, submission, and anticipation
This states that emotions result from the experience of physiological reactions in the body
This theory says that emotions and bodily responses both occur simultaneously due to the ways that parts of the brain process information
Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
This theory states that how we experience an emotion is influenced by the cognitive label we apply to explain the physiological changes we have experienced
He outlined several strategies people use to regulate their emotions
Thought suppression and rumination
We directly alter our emotional reactions to events by thinking about those events in more neutral terms
This has many mental and physical health benefits
Laughter improves the immune system and stimulates the release of hormones, dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins
When we suppress negative thoughts, we are trying not to feel or respond to the emotion at all
This involves thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings
This involves doing or thinking about something other than the troubling activity or thought
A negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation
People feel __________ after violating a cultural norm, doing something clumsy, being teased, or experiencing a threat to their self-image
This occurs most often when people believe others might view them negatively and communicates an understanding that some type of social awkwardness has occurred
This is a state of discomfort when there is a conflict between a belief and a behavior.
People are motivated to satisfy needs for competence and relatedness.
In the self-determination theory, people draw conclusions based on their _________, unaware of their _______.
He proposed a number of basic psychosocial needs, including needs for power, autonomy, achievement, and play.
The expectation that your efforts will lead to success.
The ability to resist the temptation for an immediate reward and wait for a later reward.
need to belong theory
The theory that states that the need a person has for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental need.
Researchers found that isolated populations with minimal Western contact accurately identify the expression of _____ with arms raise and a positive expression.
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