97 terms

NUR 105 Unit 6

please dont mind the spelling =)
Active Transport
the active (energy-requiring) movement of a substance between differnt tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within the cell membrane
the passive movement of a substance (e.g. drug) between differnt tissues from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
pretaining to a person who is 65 years of age or older (note some sources consider to be 55 or older)
pretaining to a person younger than 1 month of age; newborn infant
a graphic tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurments
pretaining to a person who is 12 years of age or younger
(-ofen identified as max. 16 years of age consult manufacturers guidelines for specific dosing info. table 3-2 on pg 38)
the use of many differnt drugs concurrently in treating a patient. who often has several health problems
Most drug studies and articles on drugs have focused on
the population between 13 and 65 years of age
It is said that 75% of currently approved drugs by the FDA are lacking the
approval for pediatric use and therefore lack specific dosage guidelines for neonates and children.
A fetus is exposed to many of the same substances as the mother including
any drugs she takes (presription, nonprescription or street drugs)
The first trimester is usually the
period of greatest danger of drug-induced developmental defects
Transfer of both drugs and nutrients to the fetus occurs primarily by
diffusion across the placenta, although not all drugs cross the placenta.
the factors that contribute to the safety or potential harm of drug therapy during pregnancy can be broadly broken down into three areas:
drug properties
fetal gestational age
maternal factors
drug properties that impact drug transfer to the fetus include
drug's chemistry
dosage (include dose and duration of therapy)
concurrently administered drugs
(exs of relevant chemical properties include molecular weight, protein binding, lipid solubility, and chemical structure)
fetal gestational age greatest risk for drug-induced developmental defects is
druing the first trimester of pregnancy (fetus undergoing rapid cell porliferation, and the skeleton, muscles, limbs and vicveral organs are developing at their most rapid rate)
gestational age important in
-determining when a drug can most easily cross the placenta to the fetus
During the last trimester
-the greatest percentage of maternally absorbed drug gets to the fetus (aka drug transfer)
-bc increased blow to fetus/increased fetal surface area/increase amount of free drug in the mother's circulation
maternal factors
any change in the mother's physiology that could impact pharmacokinetic characteristics of drugs can affect the amount of drug to which the fetus may be exposed
Maternal liver and kidney function play a major role in
drug metaboliosm and excretion and are critical factors, espcially if the drug crosses the placenta. May result in higher drug levels than normal and/or prolonged drug exposure
maternal genotype
may also affect how and to what extent certain drugs are metabolized(pharmacogentics) which affects drug exposure of the fetus
the lack of certain enzyme systems may result in adverse drug effects to the fetus when
the mother is exposed to a drug that is normally metabolized by the given enzyme
Exs of when meds are needed in pregnancy bc potential for harm outweighs risk (to mother and fetus)
hypertension, epilepsy, diabetes, and infection
FDA classification for pregnancy based on
-mostly animal studies and limited human studies
-ethical issues related to studies on fetuses
Caterogy A
studies indicate no risk to human fetus
Category B
studies indicate no risk to animal fetus; information for humans is not available
Category C
Adverse effecs reported in animal fetus; info for humans is not available
Category D
possible fetal risk in humans reported; however, consideration of potentail benefits vs. risk may, in selected cases, warrant use of these drugs in pregnant women
Category X
fetal abnormalities reported and positive evidence of fetal risk in humans available from animal and/or human studies, these should not be used by pregnant women
breast-fed infants are
at risk for exposure to drugs consumed by the mother
the primary drug characterisics that increase the likelihood that a drug given to a breast-feeding mother will end up in the breast milk include
fat solubility
low molecular weight
high concentration
breast milk is not
the primary route for maternal excretion
-drug levels in breast milk lower than blood
breast-feeding infants exposure is linked to
amount of consumption of milk
ultimate decision on a breast-feeding mother to take a drug is related to the
risk/benefit ratio (must be considered on a case by case basis)
younger then 38 wk gestation
premature or preterm infant
younger than 1 month
neonate or newborn infant
1 mo up to 1 yr
1 yr up to 12 yr
physiologic factor most responsible for differnces in pediatric pts is
the immaturity of organs
rapid developing tissues may be more sensitive to certain drugs and therefore
smaller dosages my be required bc of this certain drugs are contraindicated during growth years
neonate considerations decreased
-first pass elimination bc of immaturity of liver
-GFR (AKA glomercular filtration rate... related to renal) and tubular and resorption bc of kidney immaturity
-Gastric emptying: slow or irregular peristalsis (AKA muscles for helping with digestion)
-fat content: lower in young pts bc of greater total body water
neonate considerations increased
-topical absorption
-gastric ph: less acidic bc acid producing cells in stomach less mature until 1-2 years of age
pediatric considerations
-Skin is thin and permeable
-Stomach lacks acid to kill bacteria
-Lungs lack mucus barriers
-Body temperature poorly regulated and dehydration occurs easily
-Liver immature drug metabolism impaired
-Kidneys immature drug excretion impaired
see table pg 38 pharmacokinetic changes in the neonate and pediatric pt
broslow tape
for emergencies: A reference at each color bar on the tape informs you of equipment sizes to perform emergency resuscitation on the child. A reference at each weight zone on the tape shows pre-calculated medication dosages.
the most accurate dosage fomula (body surface area)
for calculating a BSA you need
-drug order with drug name,dose, route, time and frequency
-info regarding available dosage forms
-peds pt height in cm and weight in kg
-BSA nomogram
-recommended adult drug dosage
BSA formula
BSA of child/BSA of adult X Adult dose= estimated child dose
BSA of child (m^2) X manufacturer's recommended dose/m^2= estimated child dose
pediatric usual stature
mg/kg/day (ex: usual dosage range per 24 hours in milligrams per kilogram)
1 kilogram =
2.2 pounds
childs weight should be given in
kilograms not pounds common source of med error and potential toxicity
General interventions with children for med adminstration
-always come prepared for procedure (all equipment, prepare for injections with needless syring)
-ask the parent and/ or child (if age appropriate) if the parent should not remain for the procedure (for in-hospital admin)
-assess for comfort methods that are appropriate before and after drug admin
med admin with infants
-while maintianing sage and secure positioning of the infant (with parent holding, rocking, cuddling, soothing) perform the procedure (injection) swiftly and safely
-allow self comforting(pacifier, fingers/thumb)
toddler med admin
-brief and concrete explanation
-some aggression
-provide comfort measures immediately after
-increase understanding though play (stuffed animals/needless syringes)
-age appropriate supervised playtime to release aggression
preschoolers med admin
-bried and concrete explanation
-provide comfort after procedure
-accept some aggresion
-magical thinking ("special medicine")
-parent very important in comfort and understanding
School-age child med admin
-allow some control
-provide comfort
-explore feelings and concepts (age appropriate)
-set behavior limits (okay to cry but not bite)
-provide activities to release aggression
-use opportunity to teach about receiving med and body funtion
-offer complete pic (need to take meds, relax deep breaths, med will help pain)
adolescents med admin
-prepare pt in advance
-allow for expression (time alone after procedure)
-encourage self-expression and individuality
-encourage participation in procedures as appropriate
Patient teaching pediatrics
-parents are the "client"
*many levels of understanding/experience
*assess level of knowledge and need for teaching
*don't assume
dont disquise in essential foods like ... but can use
-don't disquise in milk/juice
-can mix with pudding/ice cream
don not add drug(s) to fluid in a cup why?
bc the amount of drug consumed would then be impossible to calculate if entire fluid not taken
to help child tolerate meds unless contraindicated add
-add little H2O to elixirs
-avoid calling meds "candy"
let children know the dangers they might not understand if called candy
-keep meds out of reach in childproof containers
make sure all family members undstands this
document what works
ask family if they know of any tricks for particular child and if you or they have something that works document it for your future and the others involved in childs care
commonly prescibed drugs in elderly are...
potassium supplements
the most commonly used OTC drugs for elderly people are...
nonsteroidal anitinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
about 1 in 3 elderly pts take
more than 8 differnt drugs each day with many taking over 15
>5 meds/day=
50% increased risk
>8 meds/day=
100% increased risk
common self-medication error for the elderly is
pill-splitting (saves on cost some insurance companies require this)
other factors of medication errors in the elderly
multiple pharmacies and/or prescribers
lack of adequate pt education and understanding
important to use one pharmacy b/c
they can monitor for drug interactions and duplicate therapy since most people see more than one presciber for specialty purposes
as the number of drugs a person takes increases so does the
risk of drug interaction
prescribing cascade
where a provider prescribes a medication to treat the advers effects of another medication
appropriate drug dose for the elderly can be
one half to two thirds of the standard adult dose
"start low and go slow" when prescribing the elderly drugs
byproduct of muscle metabolism
absorption elderly gastric ph
less acidic bc of gradual production of HCI (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach
absorption elderly gastric emptying
is slowed due to decline in smooth muscle tone and motor activity
absorption elderly GI tract movement
is slow b/c of decresed muscle tone and motor activity
absorption elderly blood flow
decreased 40-50% b/c decreased cardac output and decreased perfustion
absorption elderly absorptive surface area is
-decreased b/c the aging process blunts and flattens villi
distribution elderly total body water
-adults 40-60 years old is 55% males 47% females
-over 60 years old is 52% males 46% females
distribution elderly fat content
increased because of decreased lean body mass
distribution elderly protein binding sites
are reduced b/c of decreased production of proteins by the aging liver and reduced protein
metabolism elderly levels of microsomal enzymes
decreased b/c the capacity of the aging liver to produce them is reduced
metabolism elderly liver blood flow
reduced by approximately 1.5% per year after 25 years of age (decreases hepatic metabolism)
excretion elderly glomerular filtration rate is
decreased by 40 to 50% primarily bc of decreased blood flow
excretion elderly the number of intact
nephrons is decreased
Assessment (nursing process peds)
Physical Assessment: Age,Ht & Wgt
Medical History
Unusual responses
Use of OTC meds
Age-related issues
Growth & development (see more on pg 44)
Assessment (nursing process elderly)
List of all MDs
Home remedies
Dietary habits
Self-medication practices
Kidney function
Liver function (see more on pg 45)
Nursing Diagnoses Risk for Injury
-related to adverse effects of meds or to the method of drug administration
-idiosyncratic reactions to drugs due to age-related drug sensitivity
nursing diagnoses deficient knowledge
related to info about drugs and knowing when to contact prescriber
planning goals
adheres to regimen
contact md when appropriate
free of complications
planning outcome criteria
states importance
follows instructions
shows improvement
takes meds without injury
written and oral instructions should be provided concerning
drug name
time of admin
adverse effects
safety of admin
simple is best
always try to simplify pts regimen and be especially alert to polypharmacy