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Chapter 10 APES Test
Terms in this set (68)
In forestry, what is selective cutting and what are the benefits as opposed to clear cutting?
Leaving some trees intact while cutting other down.
Helps retain water and holds soil in place. Also the remaining trees allow forest regrowth.
What is a negative result of extensive logging?
Mudslides, climate change
What is the single largest cause of species extinction?
Changes to the landscape
How do paved surfaces change the landscape?
They absorb heat from the sun a reradiate it, creating urban "heat islands"
Why do communities around the world regulate public land use?
Individual activities can have wide-ranging effects on other lands.
What is the Tragedy of the Commons?
The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
Who brought the "Tragedy of the Commons" issue to attention?
When was the "Tragedy of the Commons" issue brought to attention?
What happens when people make decisions that benefit only their own short-term gain and do not consider the common good?
What does the Tragedy of the Commons apply to?
Any publicly available resource that is not regulated.
What is an externality?
A cost or benefit if a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.
The Tragedy of the Commons is the result of an economic phenomenon called a ______ _______.
Why are we concerned (in environmental science) about negative externalities?
Because they so often lead to serious environmental damage for which no one is held legally or financially responsible.
In order to calculate the true cost of using a resource, we must always include the ____________ ____.
Why could private ownership prevent the Tragedy of the Commons?
The landowner is much less likely to overuse his own resource.
Why could regulation by the government help prevent the Tragedy of the Commons?
The government would have the lands best interest in mind and be able to set regulations based on that.
What did Professor Elinor Ostrom's work on the necessity of government regulation to prevent resource overuse show?
That self regulation by resource users can prevent the Tragedy of the Commons.
What do we need to know when we want to obtain the maximum amount of a resource?
How much of a given plant or animal population can be harvested without harming the resource as a whole.
What is the Maximum Sustainable Yield of a renewable resource?
The maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.
In theory, a population grows at its maximum rate when it is approximately ____ the carrying capacity?
What is the MSY is terms of the carrying capacity?
Whatever amount of harvest that keeps the resource population at about one-half the carrying capacity.
Why is keeping the resource population at half the carrying capacity challenging?
It is difficult to calculate because in a natural ecosystem, it is difficult to obtain necessary information.
What is the most recent global study of protected areas? How much land does it include?
The 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas, 4.2 billion acres
What percentage of Earth's land is protected in one way or another?
What are the ten international categories of public lands?
National Parks, Managed Resource Protected Areas, Habitat/Species Management Areas, Strict Nature Reserves and Wilderness Areas, Protected Landscapes and Seascapes, National Monuments.
What are National Parks?
Managed for scientific use, educational use, recreational use, and sometimes for their beauty or unique landforms. Generally exist to protect animal species.
2.7% of Earth's land area
What are Managed Resource Protected Areas?
Allows for the sustained use of biological, mineral, and recreational resourcesúu.
1.1 billion acres
What are Habitat/Species Management Areas?
They are actively managed to maintain biological communities (fire prevention or predator control)
740 million acres
What are Strict Nature Reserves and Wilderness Areas?
They are established to protect species and ecosystems.
490 million acres
What are Protected Landscapes and Seascapes?
These areas combine the nondestructive use of natural resources with opportunities for tourism and recreation.
250 million acres
What are National Monuments?
Areas set aside to protect unique sites of special natural or cultural interest.
69 million acres
In the U.S. publicly held land may be owned by _______, _____, or _____ ___________.
Federal, State, Local governments
What percentage of land in the U.S. is publicly held?
Who is the largest single landowner in the U.S. and how much land do they hold?
The federal government, 25% of U.S. land
What percentage of the land the federal government owns is in the 11 western continental states? What percentage is in Alaska?
What are the five public land classifications in the United States?
Rangelands, National Forests, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, and Wilderness areas.
What does the Resource Conservation Ethic state?
People should maximize resource use based on the greatest good for everyone.
What are multiple-use lands?
Public lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.
Why are some public lands designated as protected lands?
In order to maintain a watershed, preserve wildlife and fish population, or maintain sites of scenic, scientific, and historical value.
Name the eight purposes land is used for in the United States from largest percentage of land in the U.S. to smallest.
Grassland/ grazing land (25%), Timber production (23%), Cropland (20%), Recreational and wildlife lands (11%), Unused land (10%), Forest grazing land (6%), Urban, residential, and transportation (4%), Defense (1%)
What determines how land is classified and which federal agency will manage it?
The lands' probable use
More than __ percent of all federal lands are managed by four federal agencies.
What four federal agencies manage nearly all federally owned lands?
The Bureau of Land Management, the United States Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service
What are BLM lands typically used for?
Grazing, mining, timber harvesting, and recreation
What are USFS lands typically used for?
Timber harvesting, grazing, and recreation
What are NPS lands typically used for?
Recreation and conservation
What are FWS lands typically used for?
Wildlife conservation, hunting, and recreation
What are Rangelands?
Dry, open grasslands
What are Rangelands primarily used for?
Rangelands are susceptible to what?
Fires and other environmental disturbances
What are the environmental benefits of livestock grazing?
Ungulates (hoofed animals) can be raised on lands too dry to farm
Grazing ungulates uses less fossil fuel energy than raising them in feedlots.
What are the environmental downfalls of livestock grazing?
Improperly managed livestock can damage stream banks and pollute surface waters.
Can cause a loss of biodiversity.
Why do some scientists argue that rangeland ecosystems are too fragile for multiple uses?
Certain environmental organizations have suggested 55% of U.S. Rangeland soils are in poor/ very poor condition.
What is the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 and why was it passed?
It converted federal rangelands from a commons to a permit-based grazing system, it was passed to halt overgrazing.
Why is the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 criticized?
Because some argue that low costs of the permits continue to encourage overgrazing.
What does the BLM focus on?
Mitigating the damages caused by grazing.
What are regional rangeland managers required to do?
Ensure healthy watersheds, maintain ecological processes (nutrient cycles, energy flow), preserve water quality, maintain or restore habitats, and protect endangered species.
Why are BLM regulations not consistently succesful in preserving vulnerable rangeland ecosystems?
Managers are not given detailed guidance and regulations do not require the involvement of environmental scientists.
What are Forests?
Areas dominated by trees and other woody vegetation.
How much of the forests used for commercial timber operations in the U.S. are privately owned?
What is royalty?
A percentage of revenues given to the government by a company using land.
Why were many national forests originally established?
To ensure a steady and reliable source of timber.
Do the royalties the government recieves balance out how much the government spends managing the the timber program and building and maintain logging roads?
What is clear-cutting?
A timber harvesting practice that involves removing all, or almost all, the trees within an area
What is a stand?
A cluster of trees
Which timber harvesting practice is the easiest and most economical?
What makes a tree species successful in a clear-cut tract of land?
It's ability to grow quickly and to achieve maximum growth rates with large amounts of direct sunlight.
What are some negative environmental impacts of clear-cutting?
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