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The knowledge, values, attitudes, and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment

Socioeconomic status

Relative standing in the society based on income, power, background and prestige

Resistance culture

Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt the behaviors and attitudes of the majority culture


Assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement


Popel who voluntarily leave their country to become permanent residents in a new place


A special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily, but who are fleeing their home country because it is not safe

Melting Pot

A metaphor for the absorption and assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of society so that ethnic differences vanish

Cultural deficit model

A model that explains the school achievement problems of ethnic minority students by assuming that their culture is inadequate and does not prepare them to succeed in school


A cultural heritage shared by a group of people


A socially constructed category based on appearances and ancestry

Minority group

A group of people who have been socially disadvantaged, not always a minority in actual numbers


Prejudgement or irrational generalization about an entire category of people


Schema that organizes knowledge or perceptions about a category


Treating or acting unfairly toward particular categories of people

Stereotype threat

The extra emotional and cognitive burden that your performance in an academic situation might confirm a stereotype that others hold about you


Rule-governed variation of a language spoken by a particular group


Successful switching between cultures in language, dialect, or nonverbal behaviors to fit the situation


Different way of talking for males and females


Speaking two languages fluently


Not proficient in any language, speaking one or more languages inadequately

English Language Learners

(ELL) Students whose primary or heritage language is not English

English as a Second Language

(ESL) Designation for programs and classes to teach English to students who are not native speakers of English

Gender biases

Different views of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other

Multicultural education

Education that promotes equity in the schooling of all students

Culturally relevant pedagogy

Excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing and maintaining cultural competence, and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo


The ability to adapt successfully in spite of difficult circumstances and threats to development


The study of the formal and informal rules for how, when, about what, to whom and how long to speak in conversations within cultural groups


The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture

Participation structures

The formal and informal rules for how to take part in a given activity

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