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Educational Psychology - Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Culture
The knowledge, values, attitudes, and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment
Socioeconomic status
Relative standing in the society based on income, power, background and prestige
Resistance culture
Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt the behaviors and attitudes of the majority culture
Tracking
Assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement
Immigrants
Popel who voluntarily leave their country to become permanent residents in a new place
Refugees
A special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily, but who are fleeing their home country because it is not safe
Melting Pot
A metaphor for the absorption and assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of society so that ethnic differences vanish
Cultural deficit model
A model that explains the school achievement problems of ethnic minority students by assuming that their culture is inadequate and does not prepare them to succeed in school
Ethnicity
A cultural heritage shared by a group of people
Race
A socially constructed category based on appearances and ancestry
Minority group
A group of people who have been socially disadvantaged, not always a minority in actual numbers
Prejudice
Prejudgement or irrational generalization about an entire category of people
Stereotype
Schema that organizes knowledge or perceptions about a category
Discrimination
Treating or acting unfairly toward particular categories of people
Stereotype threat
The extra emotional and cognitive burden that your performance in an academic situation might confirm a stereotype that others hold about you
Dialect
Rule-governed variation of a language spoken by a particular group
Code-switching
Successful switching between cultures in language, dialect, or nonverbal behaviors to fit the situation
Genderlects
Different way of talking for males and females
Bilingualism
Speaking two languages fluently
Semilingual
Not proficient in any language, speaking one or more languages inadequately
English Language Learners
(ELL) Students whose primary or heritage language is not English
English as a Second Language
(ESL) Designation for programs and classes to teach English to students who are not native speakers of English
Gender biases
Different views of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other
Multicultural education
Education that promotes equity in the schooling of all students
Culturally relevant pedagogy
Excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing and maintaining cultural competence, and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo
Resilience
The ability to adapt successfully in spite of difficult circumstances and threats to development
Sociolinguistics
The study of the formal and informal rules for how, when, about what, to whom and how long to speak in conversations within cultural groups
Pragmatics
The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture
Participation structures
The formal and informal rules for how to take part in a given activity